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  • 1.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    “Contextual modernism” – is it possible? Steps to improved housing strategy2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modernist planning emerged in the latter part of the 19th century, largely in response to changes Industrial Revolution brought on cities in Western Europe. The modernist concept of planning, which emerged in response to a very particular time and set of regional circumstances, spread throughout the world in the following decades. The result, where the idea was simplistically accepted was a disaster. In contrast however, cities of Northern Europe, among others, are mentioned for their successful revision of modernist principles to meet their local conditions. However, early on attempts to revise modernism according to local conditions such as done by Swedish architects in the 1930’s and by Germany during  the Nazi period are often understated in intellectual debates about the ‘modernist model’. Paying particular attention to housing, this paper discusses the contrasting results of modernist planning approaches in industrialized verses low-income countries and welfare verses market driven economies. 

    What local conditions were central for the success /or failure of modernist housing models in different contexts? This context question will be used to identify what architects and policy makers can do to reconcile the global market and political drive to ‘modernise’ with  local ambitions of citizens for decent housing.

    The study is largely based on review of literature but also with a selective referencing of evidences from empirical studies. Attempt is made to use body of knowledge from theoretical critics of modernism by Manfredo Tafuri and Robert Venturi to more pragmatic works of Jane Jacobs (1961) and James Holston (1989). Evidences are drawn from review of studies of the Swedish Million Homes programs of the 60’s and 70’s and from own ethnographic survey of the ongoing Grand Housing Program of Ethiopia. 

  • 2.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Coupling informality with formality: Ideas for innovative housing and urban development strategy2011In: Panel 90: Challenges of and Engagements in Urban Housing in Africa, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Informality today, and perhaps even more importantly in the years to come, remains to be the dominant mode of urban production in many cities of developing nations. And informal settlements for many urban dwellers are the only viable alternative for accessing land, services, job opportunities and social mobility. Yet, much of the planning and design practice in these cities disregards and/or alienates this form of urbanization. Informal settlements, which generally are referred as “slums” are often associated with unsafe, unsanitary, badly serviced living environments without security of tenure. The dominant idea which has shaped and continues to shape most non-western cities is based on the rejection of inherited patterns and knowledge and the pursuit of an irrelevant urban modernity. (Malik 2001)

     

    Modernist housing provider model, i.e. strong public sector involvement in a centralized production of ready-made minimum-standard units for anonymous residents, was introduced both to address the problem of housing shortage in the era of rapid urbanization and to solve the problem of “slums”. Conflicting views of modernist approaches have resulted in an ongoing and polarized debate: on one side, praise for its salutary delivery of the masses from unhealthy “slums”; on the other, disdain for its engagement in oppressive practices of social engineering and the eradication of traditional urban fabric. Modernist residential blocks are criticized for their lack of sensitiveness to social and cultural needs of the people (eg Holston 1989).  They are also criticized for being unaffordable, energy-demanding, and climatically unsound and being rigid (e.g. Correa 1985). The dissatisfaction with modernist housing solutions has motivated reconsideration of traditional methods of housing production and more increasingly in recent years many studies are being directed to understanding the production and functioning of informal settlements.  

    While there had been few attempts to couple informality and formality, they have emphasized only one aspect – that of the moral and entrepreneurial capacity of the urban poor in informal housing environments. Exploring informality both from theoretic and design point of view the study intends to observantly investigate physical and social qualities of informal settlements in terms of their capacity to accommodate hierarchically and temporally defined needs of the dwellers. The paper presents a part of an ongoing doctoral research which explores what values for residents are inherent in ‘modern’ and ‘traditional’ types of housing and what the concepts 'formal' and 'informal' mean in connection to production, use and management of housing. The objective is to create knowledge for possible coordination and synergies between these poles.

    Empirical evidences are primarily drawn from own study of an ongoing large scale condominium housing program of Addis Ababa to sketch the first drafts of ideas for a housing and urban development model for African cities.

  • 3.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Home-looseness in large residential neighbourhoods?: An Ethnographic Case StudyIn: Housing, Theory and SocietyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While many studies have been devoted to understanding large residential neighbourhoods, the approaches employed have mostly been disciplinary and the knowledge produced largely fragmented. Place and home are (re)introduced as concepts useful for integrated knowledge production in housing research. Aiming to contribute to this discussion, this article uses an ethnographic case study of recently built condominiums in Addis Ababa to explore how large residential estates (un)become home-places as a result or part of a process involving hegemonic production of spaces through forms and discourses and residents’ ways of home-making micro- practices through appropriating, location, shared spaces and uses, on the other. Effects of home ownership and communal spatial organization are evaluated and analysed. The findings reveal a development of a loose sense home, particularly at the neighborhood level. The article concludes by highlighting the usefulness of the notion of home for a just city, followed by suggesting some planning and design ideas that may help enhance sense of home and practice of home-making.

  • 4.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Places on Becoming: An Ethnographic Case Study of a Changing City and its Emerging Residential Environments2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Some places which once were celebrated by many slowly become places of desolation and social problem while others built with similar intentions and forms continue to flourish. This is typically true of a number of large residential neighbourhoods of Post-World War II Europe and many cities of the global South. Large residential environments have been extensively studied since their emergence in the early 20th century, but often from disciplinary perspectives. Moreover, studies have often focused on singular aspects of these environments. Thus, knowledge of how large residential environments develop as places once created, and what the residents’ role in this process is, remains fragmented and hardly usable for effective urban design/planning interventions. Studies, particularly in the last decade, have begun to show the usefulness of the notion of place as an integrative conceptin housing research. This thesis aims to contribute to interdisciplinarydiscussions on large residential environments by drawing upon theories of space and place from vast fields of social and human sciences, and using anthropological and historical research methods. It explores the multiple ways and means that large residential environments gain their material and social identity as places. The main interest is to understand how the residents perceive, receive and appropriate living environment, and how that contributes to the becoming of the places. Based on such a notion of place, the study presents a critical review of the current transformation of Addis Ababa and its ongoing large-scale housing development. Residents’ ways of articulating their needs, desires, and values are investigated ethnographically and in relation to the socio-political, historical and spatial contexts within which they are taking place.The findings of the study are presented in four academic articles, and in an introductory essay. Each article addresses the main research question (i.e. “how residential places become”) from different angles: Article I (History, Modernity and the Making of an African Spatiality) explores place as a construction of historical and socio-political processes; ArticleII (Socio-SpatialTensions and Interactions: An Ethnography of Condominium Housing of Addis Ababa) and Article III (Home-looseness in Large Residential Environments?) explores place as an assemblage of multiple spatial practices and experiences. Article IV (Sustainable Urbanism: Moving Past Neo- Modernist & Neo-Traditionalist Housing Strategies) explores place as a product of particular urban design/planning paradigm.The findings of the thesis show that the key processes that shape spaces into places are highly embedded in the dialectical relationship between larger structures (i.e. social, economic, political and physical) and the everyday practices of people within the built environment. The findings also show that this relationship is highly mediated by local experiences of modernity. Thus, for example, when modernity is sought as an end, as in the case of the condominium housing of Addis Ababa, a fragile and often paradoxical relationship develops between people and their places as could be seen by the weak senses of place or attachment among condominium residents. One implication for urban design/planning practice is the recognition that place (or the home-place) is predominantly a process, and in the context of modernity, placemaking is highly contested because the process is evaded and people’s relationships with place overridden. Based on the findings, the limits and potentials of the urban design or planning are highlighted. It is recommended that theories of place- becoming – implying understanding of a place as an open-ended process and spatial experiences of ordinary people as the fundamental aspect of place – should be the integral basis of placemaking understanding and practice. Design ethnography is suggested as a possible way to promote placemaking practices closer to the multiple experiences of ordinary people / residents.

  • 5.
    Ejigu, Alazar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Socio-Spatial Tensions and Interactions: An Ethnography of the condominium housing of Addis Ababa2012In: Sustainable Cities: Local Solutions in the Global South / [ed] Robertson, Mélanie, Rudby: Practical Action Publishing Limited , 2012, p. 97-112Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the city of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, an ambitious government programme has tried to reduce the country’s severe housing shortage through the large-scale produc- tion of low-cost condominium housing. This study examines the interactive rela- tionship between the residents’ way of life and the spatial organization and spatial quality of this housing project. Different motivations and expectations were held by all stakeholders: politicians, planners, and residents (who may be either tenants or owners). Based on ethnographic surveys and key-person interviews, the study discusses how these expectations and attempts for fulfilment continuously influ- ence spatial use, and hence the functional and social performance of the housing estate. While most studies on similar housing programmes are conducted years after the implementation of the programme, this study focuses on the processes as they evolve over time.

  • 6.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Addis Becoming 'Addis': A Hegemonic Making?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper deals with the notion of space and power in thesymbolic and physical making of places. It identifies three forms of power in such making: that which is inscribedin the architecture; that embedded in the social structures and norms; and that which individuals themselvesexert by their everyday uses of spaces and facilities. The paper discusses how dominant discourses resonatethrough architectural forms and influence spatial meaning and use and conversely how space mediates, framesand contests everyday power practices. It uses historical narrative and ethnographic methods to study how anaggressive large-scale condominium housing production in Addis Ababa serves a sociopolitical goal ofconstructing an image of a ‘modern’ city – ‘addis’ Addis. Theories are primarily drawn from works of Bourdiue,Lefebvre, and Dovey. The preliminary finding shows how desire for the ‘modern’ facilitates residents’cooperativeness to adapting to new ways of life inscribed in condominium architecture and their willingness toexercise ‘positive power’ as seen in their ‘constructive’ appropriation of spaces. ‘Modernity’, here, becomes asocial force that coordinates positive power relations. However, this was constantly resisted by power structuresembedded in established social norms and structures. Residents’ ways of negotiating between these contestingpowers through their everyday activities becomes vital in the ‘construction’ of new identity of their place. Theevidence challenges views that see space as fixed, empty, and enclosed container of social practices. Space isinstead shown to be a dynamic medium configured by power, and becomes a resource for power. The studyshows how understanding power struggles can help identify interests articulated by users; and that neglecting toconsider this process in the conception of housing projects could undermine possibilities for practicingconstructive social interactions or on the other hand may encourage power domination.

  • 7.
    Ejigu, Alazar Gedamu
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    The making of ‘modern’ Addis: The role of the ‘addis’ myth2012In: The Myth of Tradition, Portland, OREGON, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The city of Addis Ababa being the only large African city without a colonial legacy is built on an indigenous settlement structure. This urban tissue which is typified by what could best be considered as ‘hetro-architecture’ creates an urbanity characterized by a “mixity” - as it is called in Addis Ababa - of social strata, functions, and economies. The close proximity of everything everywhere in the city makes crucial issues of survival for the large majority of poor inhabitants redundant, e.g. transport costs, ghettoization, etc. However, largely despised as “slum”, “old”, “unplanned” and “informal” in political and academic discourses this non-centralized, non-segregated, non-functionalist urban tissue of Addis Ababa, is extensively being replaced in recent years by government initiated large-scale condominium estates that strive not only to provide better serviced, affordable housing but to create a new image of modern Addis Ababa – “diplomatic capital of Africa”. While attempt is made in the design of the condominiums to accommodate certain socio-cultural requirements, a dominating feature of the practice exhibits a mix of liberal sympathies and the technocratic desire to rebuild ‘addis’ – as it means “new” in the local language – Addis Ababa, just as its name given by its ambitious founder Menelik II, in 1887. The re-“new”-al project thus largely tends to compromise traditional values and ways of life and undermine qualities in traditional settlements. However, ddespite its radical attitudes that disregard existing social and spatial qualities of the city, and the negative consequences thereof, the modernization project of Addis has earned high regard among the general public and majority of condominium residents. Primarily using historical narrative and ethnographic methods, the paper discusses the construction and role of the ‘addis’ myth in the making of ‘modern’ Addis. It shows how the ‘addis’ myth and an age old (but for long restrained) desire for the ‘modern’ facilitate residents’ tolerance to the challenges they face in trying to adapt to the new ways of life inscribed in condominium architecture. And somewhat contrary to the belief that assumes modernism as a top down imposition, the case of Addis Ababa demonstrates that modernist projects are co-inspired by popular penchant for the exotic – in the case of Addis , the “new” and the “modern”. ‘Modernity’ serves as a social force that coordinates the modernization project and the making of places. As key theoretical references, I refer works of Lefebvre, and Bourdieu in exploring the concepts of place, and making of places through everyday social practices.  

  • 8.
    Elfors, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Environmental Research as a Tool for Change: Theoretical and methodological implications from two case studies producing knowledge for environmentally sustainable housing2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    The theme of this thesis is environmental research as a tool for change. In the first part of the thesis a “Situation of Opportunity” is studied, i.e. a situation when the opportunities to reduce negative environmental impacts are larger than usual. The maintenance of a multi- family residential area, here called a Small Neighbourhood, is studied as a series of Situations of Opportunity.

    To explore the prerequisites for using maintenance as a Situation of Opportunity, two case studies were carried out and reported as a licentiate thesis. The first one on the rental area Idö-Våldö in Stockholm managed by the association Stockholms Kooperativa Bostadsförening (SKB), and the second one on Järven, a housing cooperative in Malmö that cooperates with the management organisation HSB Malmö. In the study the researcher developed long-term environmental strategies based on the planned maintenance of the areas. Besides exploring the prerequisites for using planned maintenance as a Situation of Opportunity, the intention was that the studies would initiate an environmental practice within the areas studied.

    Results indicated that maintenance, at least in principle, creates many possibilities for reducing negative environmental impacts and that it to some extent also can be used for creating a dialogue between residents and managers. However, the conditions for using maintenance in the cases studied were limited by low interest among the residents as well as the economical and organisational prerequisites of the cases. The studies did not initiate an environmental practice as intended. The reason for that might be the mentioned conditions, but it could also depend on the researcher’s limited knowledge on action-oriented and collaborative research.

    Thus, the second part of the thesis aims at developing a research methodology for such research. Based on empirical experiences from the Idö-Våldö and Järven-studies and a literature study, a methodology for action-oriented research for environmentally sustainable housing (ARESH) is outlined. It is proposed that methods of action research and of case study methodology could be applied in ARESH. However, there are several potential conflicts in ARESH. The researcher has for instance to judge if the study should be led in the first hand by participants or by researchers, or if it should be more oriented towards theory than practice. One conclusion is that a research methodology for such research needs to be further discussed and also further explored in practice. Since there are indications that a collaborative and action-oriented research is evolving in the field of environmental research, it is hoped that the findings of the thesis can contribute to a discussion on how to carry out research as a tool for change

  • 9.
    Elfors, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Research as a Tool for Change?: Towards a methodology for action-oriented environmental research, learning from case study methodology and action research2006In: International Journal of Sustainable Development, ISSN 0960-1406, E-ISSN 1741-5268, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many studies on environmental sustainability, research is combined with initiating action. This approach differs from the more traditional natural-sciences view of research. However, the potential problems of the action orientation are seldom reflected upon. The aim of this paper, is to discuss pitfalls as well as possibilities and to propose a methodology for action-oriented Environmental Research. Comparisons with methodologies for Action Research (AR) and case studies are made. Experiences from a previous study on environmental practice in two Swedish residential areas are also used. The results of the discussion indicate several problems, and some of these could be overcome.

  • 10.
    Elfors, Susanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Svane, Örjan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Action Research for Environmentally Sustainable Housing: Using research as a tool for change2008In: Journal of Transdisciplinary Environmental Studies, ISSN 1602-2297, E-ISSN 1602-2297, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Critics claim that neither results from sustainable housing demonstration projects nortools for the environmental impact assessment of buildings are used in mainstream housing practice.Th is raises the question of how research-based knowledge for energy effi ciency and environmentalsustainability in the built environment could be transferred to practice in a better way. In this articlewe propose a model to address this problem by combining refl ective research and “green engineering”.Th e model was developed through applying action research theory on generalized fi ndings ofempirical studies by diff erent researchers. Th e model is called Action Research for EnvironmentallySustainable Housing (ARESH). In this kind of research it is permissible to be openly normativeand to strive for change, but not to neglect critical refl ection. To achieve this, the researcher has toco-operate closely with co-researchers such as residents and housing managers, and, furthermore, tobalance between taking the roles of researcher, team member and teacher/preacher. On the positiveside, the model permits dissemination of information targeted at researchers as well as practitioners,and also “leaves behind” practical knowledge with the co-researchers after the project properhas ended.

  • 11.
    Gu, Zhenhong
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Vestbro, Dick Urban
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Assefa, Getachew
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    A study of Chinese strategies for energy-efficient housing developments from an architect's perspective, combined with Swedish experiences and game theory2009In: Civil engineering and environmental systems (Print), ISSN 1028-6608, E-ISSN 1029-0249, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 323-338Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The energy issue is always an important factor in sustainable housing developments. Over the years, a number of energy-saving techniques have been developed to reduce consumption of primary energy and utilise renewable energy in architectural designs. However, the real situation regarding energy-efficient buildings has improved rather slowly during the recent decades, both in the developing and developed countries. Hammarby Sjostad is one of the largest urban housing developments in Europe but is built to standards twice as strict as those currently being applied for new housing, including energy consumption. Eco-villages are small-scale housing developments, usually in the suburbs, where residents also try to create highly specific ecological environments. There are two basic paradigms to solve the current housing problem: top-down (provider paradigm) or bottom-up (support paradigm). This paper analyses the differences between these, especially from an energy efficiency perspective. Housing development is a gaming process between diverse stakeholders. All the stakeholders try to choose different actions in an attempt to maximise their returns. If the proposals made by the architects and engineers are not consistent with the interests of other stakeholders, they have little chance of being applied in actual projects. This paper describes systematic development strategies for the energy-efficient housing project Jun Lin Zijin, a Chinese residential and commercial project furthering the progress of design and construction.

  • 12.
    Haas, Tigran
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Infrastructure.
    Perotti Flores, German
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    New Neighborhoods in Action: The Case of Lidingö Center Urban Village and Jarla Sjö New Urbanism Community2003In: 34th International Making Cities Livable Conference IMCL and 2nd Symposium on The European Square in Siena, Italy June 2003, Siena: IMCL , 2003Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13. Myhr, Ulla
    et al.
    Johansson, Rolf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    EcoEffect for outdoor environments:  the process of tool development2008In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 28, no 7, p. 439-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous evaluation tools for the built environment have been developed in recent decades only some however integrate the outdoor environment. In EcoEffect, a Swedish assessment system, the outdoor environment is one of five areas covered. The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss various issues that evolved during the testing and developing phase of the EcoEffect Outdoor tool. The tool is designed to cover all important health risks to people in an outdoor environment, to show the relationship between circumstances in the outdoor environment and the levels specified in Swedish legislation and to enable a speedy and accurate assessment of the outdoor environment on a property. The work has been carried out in cooperation with experts, residents and representatives of the construction and property sectors. The tool has been tested on existing properties, discussed in focus groups, and has been subject to theoretical development. The results have provided a basis for changing both the EcoEffect Outdoors tool and the framework of the EcoEffect system. Important conclusions here include the notion that a clear account should be given of the fundamental values of the tool, that environmental impact should be reported in the same way throughout the whole assessment process and that the tool has to adhere to both scientific and practical validity to be useful for the building sector.

  • 14.
    Rönn, Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Johansson, Rolf
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Werner, Inga Britt
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Om kvalitet i arkitektur: några forskningserfarenheter2008In: Nordisk Arkitekturforskning, ISSN 1102-5824, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Svane, Örjan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Elfors, Susanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Built Environment Analysis.
    Från sopsortering till solfångartak: Miljöstrategier för bostadsområden baserade på underhåll och samråd2007Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
1 - 15 of 15
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