Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 57
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Abenoza, Roberto
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Cats, Oded
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. Department of Transport and Planning, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5048, GA Delft, 2600, Netherlands.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Determinants of traveler satisfaction: Evidence for non-linear and asymmetric effects2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 66, p. 339-356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classifying public transport service attributes based on their influence on overall traveler satisfaction can assist stakeholders and practitioners in introducing cost-efficient measures. To date most studies employed methods that were based on the assumption that the impact of service attributes on traveler satisfaction is entirely linear and symmetric. This study examines whether service attributes have a non-linear and asymmetric influence on the overall travel experience by employing the Three-factor theory (basic, performance and exciting factors). The analysis is conducted for different traveler segments depending on their level of captivity, travel frequency by public transport and travel mode used, and is based on a relatively large sample size collected for Stockholm County. Moreover, the estimated models control for important socio-demographic and travel characteristics that have been insofar overlooked. Results are presented in the form of a series of multi-level cubes that represent different essentiality of traveler needs which provide a useful methodological framework to further design quality service improvements that can be applied to various geographical contexts. Our findings highlight that a “one size fits all” approach is not adequate for identifying the needs of distinct traveler segments and of travelers using different travel modes. Furthermore, two-thirds of the attributes are consistently classified into the same factor category which entails important policy implications. This research deepens and expands the very limited knowledge of the application of the three-factor theory in the transport field.

  • 2. Berends, Sönke
    et al.
    sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    The Socio-Economic Benefits of Off-Peak Hour Distribution: The case of Stockholm2018In: Urban Logistics. : Management, Policy and Innovation in a Rapidly Changing Environment , Kogan page, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bhat, Sriharsha
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    An Investigation into the Optimal Control Methods in Over-actuated Vehicles: With focus on energy loss in electric vehicles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become electrified and more intelligent in terms of sensing, actuation and processing; a number of interesting possibilities arise in controlling vehicle dynamics and driving behavior. Over-actuation with inwheel motors, all wheel steering and active camber is one such possibility, and can facilitate control combinations that push boundaries in energy consumption and safety. Optimal control can be used to investigate the best combinations of control inputs to an over-actuated system. In Part 1, a literature study is performed on the state of art in the field of optimal control, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of different methods and their applicability to a vehicular system. Out of these methods, Dynamic Programming and Model Predictive Control are of particular interest. Prior work in overactuation, as well as control for reducing tire energy dissipation is studied, and utilized to frame the dynamics, constraints and objective of an optimal control problem. In Part 2, an optimal control problem representing the lateral dynamics of an over-actuated vehicle is formulated, and solved for different objectives using Dynamic Programming. Simulations are performed for standard driving maneuvers, performance parameters are defined, and a system design study is conducted. Objectives include minimizing tire cornering resistance (saving energy) and maintaining the reference vehicle trajectory (ensuring safety), and optimal combinations of input steering and camber angles are derived as a performance benchmark. Following this, Model Predictive Control is used to design an online controller that follows the optimal vehicle state, and studies are performed to assess the suitability of MPC to over-actuation. Simulation models are also expanded to include non-linear tires. Finally, vehicle implementation is considered on the KTH Research Concept Vehicle (RCV) and four vehicle-implementable control cases are presented.

    To conclude, this thesis project uses methods in optimal control to find candidate solutions to improve vehicle performance thanks to over-actuation. Extensive vehicle tests are needed for a clear indication of the energy saving achievable, but simulations show promising performance improvements for vehicles overactuated with all-wheel steering and active camber.

  • 4.
    Bhat, Sriharsha
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Davari, Mohammad Mehdi
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, VinnExcellence Center for ECO2 Vehicle design.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Study on energy loss due to cornering resistance in over-actuated electric vehicles using optimal control2017In: SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH - V126-10, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As vehicles become electrified and more intelligent in terms of sensing, actuation and processing; a number of interesting possibilities arise in controlling vehicle dynamics and driving behavior. Over-actuation with in- wheel motors, all wheel steering and active camber is one such possibility, which facilitate the control strategies that push boundaries in energy consumption and safety. Optimal control can be used to investigate the best combinations of control inputs to an over-actuated system. This paper shows how an optimal control problem can be formulated and solved for an over-actuated vehicle case, and highlights the translation of this optimal solution to a real-world scenario, enabling intelligent means to improve vehicle efficiency. This paper gives an insight into the Dynamic Programming (DP) as an offline optimal control method that guarantees the global optimum. Therefore the optimal control allocation to minimize an objective function and simultaneously fulfill the defined constraints can be achieved. As a case study the effect of over-actuation on the cornering resistance were investigated in two different maneuvers i.e. step steer and sine with dwell, where in both cases the vehicle assumes to be in steady state situation. In this work the cornering resistance is the main objective function and maintaining the reference trajectory is the constraint which should be fulfilled. A parameter study is conducted on the benefits of over-actuation, and depending on the type of over-actuation about 15% and 50% reduction in cornering resistance were observed during step steer and sine with dwell maneuver respectively. From a second parameter study that focused on COG position from a safety perspective, it is more beneficial for the vehicle to be designed to under-steer than over-steer. Finally, a method is described to translate the offline optimal results to vehicle implementable controllers in the form of both feed-through lookup-tables and rule-based feed-forward control.

  • 5.
    Bout, Martijn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    A Head-Mounted Display to Support Remote Operators of Shared Automated Vehicles2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving systems will be severely challenged under the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is particularly true for Shared Automated Vehicles, as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver onboard. When a Shared Automated Vehicle encounters a situation it cannot handle, a remote human operator will be needed to intervene. The remote operator can help the passengers to continue their journey by resuming vehicle operations. This thesis has investigated whether using a Head-MountedDisplay in comparison to a computer display improves Situation Knowledge for remote operators of Shared Automated Vehicles. This research adopted a user-centered design approach to develop a Head-Mounted Display and computer display prototype. In one of the first studies on a Shared Automated Vehicle remote control interface, this thesis considered implicit measurements of Situation Knowledge and did not focus on performance indicators. In a userstudy, twelve participants were given the task to determine the reason why theShared Automated Vehicle had stopped based on pre-recorded driving scenarios.Strong qualitative evidence indicates that a Head-Mounted Display canprovide remote operators with improved Situation Knowledge in comparisonto computer displays. To deepen the understanding of the performance andSituation Knowledge for remote operators of Shared Automated Vehicles undervarious conditions further research is necessary. Future studies can extendknowledge by assessing different scenarios and tasks in a live remote controlsituation, and develop and evaluate additional interface elements.

  • 6.
    Bout, Martijn
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål-Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Viktoria.
    Böckle, Marc-Philipp
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    A Head-Mounted Display to Support Teleoperations of Shared Automated Vehicles2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, New York: ACM Digital Library, 2017, , p. 4p. 62-66Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated driving systems will be severely challenged in the unpredictable conditions of mixed traffic. Consequently, some form of human support remains essential in the foreseeable future. This challenge is especially true for Shared Automated Vehicles (SAVs), as these vehicles will likely not include any human driver on-board. When an SAV will encounter a scenario it cannot handle, a remote human operator will need to intervene and help the vehicle and its passengers. In this study a user-centred design approach is used to study whether a Head-Mounted Display (HMD) interface can support such operators and provide them with additional spatial awareness. Two prototypes (an HMD and a computer display) are developed and evaluated using pre-recorded real-world scenarios. Twelve participants assessed three possible scenarios a remote operator may encounter. Among participants, the study found evidence of strong implicit spatial awareness when using an HMD interface.

  • 7.
    Böckle, Marc-Philipp
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Klingegård, Maria
    RISE Viktoria.
    Habibovic, Azra
    RISE Viktoria.
    Bout, Martijn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    SAV2P – Exploring the Impact of an Interface for Shared Automated Vehicles on Pedestrians’ Experience2017In: AutomotiveUI 2017 - 9th International ACM Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications, Adjunct Proceedings, New York, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2017, p. 136-140Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To study future communication needs between pedestrians and shared automated vehicles (SAVs), an interface that communicates the intentions of SAVs to pedestrians was designed and implemented in a virtual reality (VR) environment. This enabled the exploration of behaviors and experiences of 34 pedestrians when encountering SAVs, both with and without the interface, in several street crossing situations. All pedestrians assessed the level of perceived safety and comfort directly after each encounter with the SAV. The results show that the pedestrians’ level of perceived safety and comfort is higher in encounters with the interface than in encounters without the interface. This may have a positive influence on the acceptance of SAVs, and implies that future SAVs may gain from this, or similar interface.

  • 8. Chee, Pei Nen
    et al.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Wong, Yiik Diew
    Investigating the willingness of use autonomous bus as a last-mile travel mode: First evidence from public trial in Kista, Stockholm2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Engholm, Albin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut.
    System-level impacts of self-driving vehicles: terminology, impact frameworks and existing literature syntheses2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention with this report is to contribute toward the development of systemic and holistic studies of impacts of self-driving vehicles. The report is targeting system-level impacts of self-driving vehicles on the transportation system but also wider societal impacts on factors such as: land-use, public health, energy and emissions, etc. This report is complimentary to two papers that are focused on in-depth literature review of simulation studies  (Pernestål Brenden and Kristoffersson 2018) and future scenario studies of impacts of self-driving vehicles (Engholm, Kristoffersson, and Pernestål Brenden 2018).

    The first aim of the report is to summarize knowledge to enable future design of a high-level conceptual framework for impacts from self-driving vehicles from a systems perspective. The second aim is to summarize knowledge on impacts from self-driving vehicles in a selection of the available literature. The main contributions of the report are the following:

    • A terminology for different types of automated vehicles, connected vehicles and mobility concepts for automated vehicles is presented
    • Frameworks for classifying system-level impacts from SDVs in the existing literature are summarized and analyzed
    • Existing literature studies on system-level impacts from SDVs are synthesized and common themes and gaps in current research are analyzed

    The terminology proposed in this report distinguishes between different types of automated and connected vehicles and is primarily intended as a tool to enable stringent analysis in this report when analyzing literature that apply different terminologies. Two frameworks for classifying system-level impacts are identified and compared. The analysis of the frameworks covers their scope, specification of mechanisms generating system impacts and briefly reviews their applicability as a starting point for developing a systems model of impacts from self-driving vehicles. The review of existing literature syntheses shows that there is a large variation in availability on literature for different system impacts. Impacts on road safety, road capacity and vehicle ownership forms are well studied. Examples of less studied impacts are costs of ownership, public health, infrastructure, air pollution and accessibility. The review identifies several contractionary mechanisms and effects that can affect various system-level impacts. The results of the review highlight the need to approach impact assessments of self-driving vehicles from a systemic and holistic point of view.

  • 10.
    Engwall, Mats
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Kaulio, Matti A.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Karakaya, Emrah
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Sustainability and Industrial Dynamics.
    Miterev, Maksim
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Berlin, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Explorative project networks: Means for business model innovation?2018In: R&D Management Conference, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When facing business model innovation, a key challenge for incumbent firms is the redefinition of industry and organizational boundaries. Drawing on findings from three cases studies this article suggests that inter-organizational projects can be effective means for mobilizing distributed resources and capabilities in order to gain business model innovation. This empirical phenomenon is discussed and analysed in detail, and implications for future research are suggested. 

  • 11.
    Gao, Fan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    State-Estimator Design for the KTH Research Concept Vehicle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Research Concept Vehicle (RCV) is a pure electric vehicle with four in-wheel motors and individual steering as well as camber actuators. It serves as an experimental research vehicle which is built by the Integrated Transport Research Lab (ITRL). The development of the RCV’s functionality never stops after the platform started running. In order to involve the advanced driver assistance systems and realize autonomous driving in the RCV, accurate information of vehicle dynamic states and the environment is required. In this case, based on the sensors we have on the RCV, sensor fusion and state estimation are critical to be adopted for solving this problem.

    The purpose of this thesis is to find appropriate estimators, define the specifications and design the corresponding logics to estimate vehicle dynamic parameters and the navigation information. The classic Kalman Filter (KF) and its extension for nonlinear systems Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) are explained and used for solving the problem. A double-track vehicle model is implemented in the estimator for current use and further development. The results of all estimations are shown, and the mathematical evaluation of position estimates indicate that they outperform the original signals which are inputs to the sensor fusion algorithm. At last, some suggestions for further improvement are presented.

  • 12.
    Hagman, Jens
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Langbroek, J. H. M.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Conditions for electric vehicle taxi: A case study in the Greater Stockholm region2019In: International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, ISSN 1556-8318, E-ISSN 1556-8334, Vol. 13, no 6, p. 450-459Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the usability of electric vehicles (EVs) in a taxi company in Greater Stockholm, Sweden. By investigating cost and revenue data of both electric and conventional taxi vehicles, as well as by interviewing taxi drivers and carriers, an assessment has been made of the financial and operational implications of using EVs in a company's taxi fleet. Both the drivers' and the carriers' perspectives have been examined. The main findings are that the investigated e-taxis have a similar or lower Total Cost of Ownership and slightly higher profitability than the investigated conventional taxis. For taxi drivers, using e-taxis implies more advanced planning and revenue service time being sacrificed for charging. However, certain customers' preferences for EVs, as well as benefits such as corporate clients favoring e-taxis and a zero emission priority queuing system at Stockholm's main international airport (partly) compensate for time devoted to charging. In order to facilitate increased use of e-taxis, more fast charging facilities should become available at strategic locations. Besides that, there are signs that carriers' lack of information about the opportunities and consequences of shifting towards e-taxis hamper a wider deployment of e-taxis.

  • 13.
    Held, Manne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Optimal Speed and Powertrain Control of a Heavy-Duty Vehicle in Urban Driving2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    A major challenge in the transportation industry is how to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. One way of achieving this in vehicles is to drive more fuel-efficiently. One recently developed technique that has been successful in reducing the fuel consumption is the look-ahead cruise controller, which utilizes future conditions such as road topography. In this this thesis, similar methods are used in order to reduce the fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles driving in environments where the required and desired velocity vary. The main focus is on vehicles in urban driving, which must alter their velocity due to, for instance, changing legal speed restrictions and the presence of intersections. The driving missions of such vehicles are here formulated as optimal control problems. In order to restrict the vehicle to drive in a way that does not deviate too much from a normal way of driving, constraints on the velocity are imposed based on statistics from real truck operation.

    In a first approach, the vehicle model is based on forces and the cost function involves the consumed energy. This problem is solved both offline using Pontryagin's maximum principle and online using a model predictive controller with a quadratic program formulation. Simulations show that 7 % energy can be saved without increasing the trip time nor deviating from a normal way of driving.

    In a second approach, the vehicle model is extended to include an engine and a gearbox with the objective of minimizing the fuel consumption. A fuel map for the engine and a polynomial function for the gearbox losses are extracted from experimental data and used in the model. This problem is solved using dynamic programming taking into consideration gear changes, coasting with gear and coasting in neutral. Simulations show that by allowing the use of coasting in neutral gear, 13 % fuel can be saved without increasing the trip time or deviating from a normal way of driving.

    Finally, an implementation of a rule-based controller into an advanced vehicle model in highway driving is performed. The controller identifies sections of downhills where fuel can be saved by coasting in neutral gear.

  • 14.
    Held, Manne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Flärdh, Oscar
    Scania CV AB, S-15187 Sodertalje, Sweden..
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Optimal Speed Control of a Heavy-Duty Vehicle in the Presence of Traffic Lights2018In: 2018 IEEE Conference on Decision and Control  (CDC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 6119-6124, article id 8619463Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fuel consumption of heavy-duty vehicles in urban driving is strongly dependent on the acceleration and braking of the vehicles. In intersections with traffic lights, large amount of fuel can be saved by adapting the velocity to the phases of the lights. In this paper, a heavy-duty vehicle obtains information about the future signals of traffic lights within a specific horizon. In order to minimize the fuel consumption, the driving scenario is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimal control is found by applying a model predictive controller, solving at each iteration a quadratic program. In such problem formulation, the constraints imposed by the traffic lights are formulated using a linear approximation of time. Since the fuel-optimal velocity can deviate strongly from how vehicles normally drive, constraints on the allowed velocity are imposed. Simulations are performed in order to investigate how the horizon length of the information from the traffic lights influences the fuel consumption. Compared to a benchmark vehicle without knowledge of future light signals, the proposed controller using a control horizon of 1000m saves 26% of energy with similar trip time. Increasing the control horizon further does not improve the results.

  • 15.
    Henriksson, Manne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Flärdh, Oscar
    Scania CV AB.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Optimal Powertrain Control of a Heavy-Duty Vehicle Under Varying Speed Requirements2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing the fuel consumption is a major issue in the vehicle industry. In this paper, it is done by formulatinga driving mission of a heavy-duty truck as an optimal control problem and solving it using dynamic programming.The vehicle model includes an engine and a gearbox with parameters based on measurements in test cells. The dynamic programming algorithm is solved by considering four specifictypes of transitions: transitions between the same gear, coastingin neutral gear, coasting with a gear engaged with no fuel injection and transitions involving gear changes. Simulations are performed on a driving cycle commonly used for testing distribution type of driving. In order to make sure that the truck does not deviate too much from a normal way of driving, restrictions on maximum and minimum allowed velocities are imposed based on statistics from real traffic data. The simulations show that 12.7% fuel can be saved without increasing the trip time by allowing the truck to engage neutral gear and make small deviations from the reference trajectory.

  • 16.
    Henriksson, Manne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Flärdh, Oscar
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Optimal Speed Trajectories Under Variations in the Driving Corridor2017In: IFAC-PapersOnLine, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 50, p. 12551-12556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal speed trajectory for a heavy-duty truck is calculated using the Pontryagin's maximum principle. The truck motion depends on controllable tractive and braking forces and external forces such as air and rolling resistance and road slope. The velocity of the vehicle is restricted to be within a driving corridor which consists of an upper and a lower boundary. Simulations are performed on data from a test cycle commonly used for testing distribution driving. The data include road slope and a speed reference, from which the driving corridor is created automatically. The simulations include a sensitivity analysis on how changes in the parameters for the driving corridor influence the energy consumption and trip time. For the widest driving corridor tested, 15.8% energy was saved compared to the most narrow corridor without increasing the trip time. Most energy was saved by reducing the losses due to braking and small amounts of energy were saved by reducing the losses due to air resistance. Finally, optimal trajectories with the same trip time derived from different settings on the driving corridor are compared in order to analyse energy efficient driving patterns.

  • 17.
    Henriksson, Manne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Scania CV AB, Sweden.
    Flärdh, Oscar
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Optimal Speed Trajectory for a Heavy Duty Truck Under Varying Requirements2016In: IEEE Conference on Intelligent Transportation Systems, Proceedings, ITSC, IEEE, 2016, p. 820-825, article id 7795650Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimal speed trajectory for a heavy duty truck is calculated by using the Pontryagin’s maximum principle. The truck motion depends on controllable tractive and braking forces and external forces such as air and rolling resistance and road slope. The solution is subject to restrictions such as maximum power and position dependent speed restrictions. The intended application is driving in environments with varying requirements on the velocity due to e.g. legal limits and traffic. In order to limit the vehicle to a speed trajectory that follows the normal traffic flow, data from real truck operation have been analysed and used for setting upper and lower boundaries for the decelerations. To evaluate the solution, simulations have been performed on a segment of a road normally used as a distribution test cycle. Three different policies were compared where the solution adopts to free optimization, optimization following traffic flow and finally cruise control using look-ahead control. Results from the simulations show that fuel consumption and trip time can be reduced simultaneously while following the traffic flow.

  • 18.
    Henriksson, Manne
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control. Scania CV AB, 151 87 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Flärdh, Oscar
    Scania CV AB, 151 87 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Roos, Fredrik
    Scania CV AB, 151 87 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Implementation of an Optimal Look-Ahead Controller in a Heavy-Duty Distribution Vehicle2019In: Proceedings 2019 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), 2019, p. 2202-2207Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Controlling the longitudinal movement of heavy-duty vehicles based on optimal control can be a cost-efficient way of reducing their fuel consumption. Such controllers today mainly exist for vehicles in haulage applications, in which the velocity is allowed to deviate from a constant set-speed. For distribution vehicles, which is the focus of this paper, the desired and required velocity has large variations, which makes the situation more complex. This paper describes the implementation of an optimal controller in a real heavy-duty distribution vehicle. The optimal control problem is solved offline as a Mixed Integer Quadratic Program, which yields reference trajectories that are tracked online in the vehicle. Some important steps in the procedure of the implementation are, except for designing the controller: developing a positioning system for the test track where the experiments are performed, estimating the parameters of the resistive forces, and setting the velocity constraints. Simulations show a potential of 10% reduction in fuel consumption without increasing the trip time. Experiments are then performed in a Scania truck, with the optimal solution as reference for the existing cruise control functions in the vehicle. It is concluded that in order to verify the fuel savings experimentally, the low-level controllers in the vehicle must be modified such that the tracking error is decreased.

  • 19.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Hasselqvist, Hanna
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Design strategies for exploring and bridging: Intersections of everyday life and decisionmaking for sustainability2017In: Conference proceedings of the Design Management Academy: Research perspectives on creative intersections / [ed] Erik Bohemia ; Cees de Bont ; Lisbeth Svengren Holm, Glasgow, 2017, Vol. 1, p. 189-205Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transitions of unsustainable everyday practices into more sustainable ones require new approaches to explore possible futures and encourage change. Trying new practices and experiencing alternative configurations of sociomaterial assemblages can increase reflexivity as well as assist in exploring potential futures. Design can assist in co-creating possible futures and bridging discussions about the preferred strategies to reach them. If sustainability is defined as an on-going process calling for dialogue, there could be potentials for using practice-based design research, and in particular co-design approaches, at the intersections of these dialogues. By analysing methods for reflexivity and collaboration in two design research projects within sustainable mobility, we here suggest design strategies for prototyping change at an individual level and communicating the experiences of such change to people with power to trigger and direct change. This may be particularly useful for addressing sustainability which both requires dealing with complex problems and extensive collaboration. 

  • 20.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Sjöman, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design.
    Pernestål, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Understanding user practices in mobility service systems: Results from studying large scale corporate MaaS in practice2019In: Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility as a Service (MaaS), where different shared modes of transportation are bundled into one easily accessible service, plays an important role in the shift towards more sustainable transport systems. In this article, we present empirical research with the aim to understand how the barriers to increased shared travel with MaaS can be lowered. The concept of corporate MaaS (CMaaS) is introduced, and empirical results are presented from a study of CMaaS at a workplace of 14,000 employees in Sweden. The findings are based on 77 interviews with CMaaS users, performed in four iterative rounds using service design methods. Social practice theories are used as analytical lens to attempt to understand travel practices in the context of CMaaS. As CMaaS (and MaaS) are socio-technical systems, several perspectives need to be integrated in order to reach this understanding; all system components, including materials (e.g. the user application, the transport modes), competences (knowledge of how to use the materials), and meanings (understandings of travel habits, lifestyle choices, and employer relations) need to be analysed. Through this analytical lens, three barriers to adoption of CMaaS and sustainable transport were identified: inadequate integration of the internal transport system with external transport systems; corporate policy, culture and norms that conflict with using the services; and system limitations due to laws and regulations. All these barriers are also relevant for understanding MaaS services in general.

    The full text will be freely available from 2021-01-03 14:46
  • 21.
    Kokogias, Stefanos
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Svensson, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Pereira, Goncalo Collares
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Oliveira, Rui
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Zhang, Xinhai
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Song, Xinwu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Development of Platform-Independent System for Cooperative Automated Driving Evaluated in GCDC 20162018In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1277-1289Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cooperative automated driving is a promising development in reducing energy consumption and emissions, increasing road safety, and improving traffic flow. The Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) 2016 was an implementation oriented project with the aim to accelerate research and development in the field. This paper describes the development of the two vehicle systems with which KTH participated in GCDC 2016. It presents a reference system architecture for collaborative automated driving as well as its instantiation on two conceptually different vehicles: a Scania truck and the research concept vehicle, built at KTH. We describe the common system architecture, as well as the implementation of a selection of shared and individual system functionalities, such as V2X communication, localization, state estimation, and longitudinal and lateral control. We also present a novel approach to trajectory tracking control for a four-wheel steering vehicle using model predictive control and a novel method for achieving fair data age distribution in vehicular communications.

  • 22.
    Kramers, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Arnfalk, Peter
    AaaS and MaaS for reduced environmental and climate impact of transport: Creating indicators to identify promising digital service innovations for reduced demand and optimized use of transport resources2018In: ICT4S2018. 5th International Conference on Information and Communication Technology for Sustainability, 2018, Vol. 52, p. 137-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a set of indicators is presented that aim to identify promising service innovations for Accessibility as a Service (AaaS) and Mobility as a Service (MaaS); services that potentially can reduce the demand for transport and optimize use of transport infrastructure and vehicles in urban regions. The proposed indicators characterize service innovations from three different perspectives: 1) Is the service innovation environmentally sustainable? Does it reduce negative impacts on the environment (reduce carbon emissions, use of space), 2) Is it rewardable? Is value created for an organization? Does it make use of new sustainable business models, and 3) How widely is the service spread? How many users are there, what is the geographic distribution and what level of societal transition has occurred? The developed indicators are meant to guide policy makers, decision makers, business developers and academia in the prioritizations that need to be made when allocating land and resources to the most promising and powerful innovations, moving towards more environmentally friendly mobility and accessibility. The next step will be to test the indicators to identify and categorize existing and emerging new services, ideas, pilots and prototypes. The results of this second step will be presented in our next article.

  • 23.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    et al.
    VTI Swedish National Institute for Road and Transport Research, SE - 102 15 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Scenarios for the development of self-driving vehicles in freight transport2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper extends previous research by developing future scenarios for self-driving vehicles and their societal impacts in freight transport using Sweden as a case study. Freight experts from vehicle manufacturers, agencies, universities and hauliers were recruited for a workshop where they assessed the benefits, costs, possibilities and barriers for self-driving vehicles in freight transport. The paper shows that reduction in driver and vehicle costs, reduced number of incidents and more fuel-efficient driving are seen as the main benefits of self-driving vehicles in freight transport, and increased vehicle costs, lost jobs, reduced degree of filling and more transport as the main costs. Furthermore, reduced drivers’ costs, more hours-of-service and new business models are identified as the main drivers of the development and traffic management, small hauliers, loading and unloading and cross-border transport as the main barriers. The paper also integrates the description of possible developments of self-driving vehicles in freight transport into the four future scenarios developed for passenger transport in Sweden.

  • 24.
    Kurzer, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Path Planning in Unstructured Environments: A Real-time Hybrid A* Implementation for Fast and Deterministic Path Generation for the KTH Research Concept Vehicle2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    On the way to fully autonomously driving vehicles a multitude of challenges have to be overcome. One common problem is the navigation of the vehicle from a start pose to a goal pose in an environment that does not provide any specic structure (no preferred ways of movement). Typical examples of such environments are parking lots or construction sites; in these scenarios the vehicle needs to navigate safely around obstacles ideally using the optimal (with regard to a specied parameter) path between the start and the goal pose. The work conducted throughout this master's thesis focuses on the development of a suitable path planning algorithm for the Research Concept Vehicle (RCV) of the Integrated Transport Research Lab (ITRL) at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, in Stockholm, Sweden. The development of the path planner requires more than just the pure algorithm, as the code needs to be tested and respective results evaluated. In addition, the resulting algorithm needs to be wrapped in a way that it can be deployed easily and interfaced with di erent other systems on the research vehicle. Thus the thesis also tries to gives insights into ways of achieving realtime capabilities necessary for experimental testing as well as on how to setup a visualization environment for simulation and debugging.

  • 25.
    Langbroek, Joram H. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning.
    Malmsten, Jon
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Solkompaniet Sverige AB, Vastbergavagen 4, S-12630 Hagersten, Sweden..
    Electric vehicle rental and electric vehicle adoption2019In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 73, p. 72-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This case study describes the project Elbilsiandet (The Electric Vehicle Country) in Gotland, Sweden, where the island Gotland is made "ready for electric vehicles" by providing a network of charging infrastructure and electric vehicle rental during several summer seasons. The influence of the electric vehicle (EV) rental scheme on the process towards electric vehicle adoption is investigated using the Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) and the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM). Moreover, the travel patterns of electric rental cars are compared with those of conventional rental cars. The main results of this study are the following: Firstly, people renting an EV are on average closer to electric vehicle adoption than people renting a conventional vehicle. Secondly, people who rent an EV are at the time of rental associated with more positive attitudes towards EVs, have more knowledge about EVs and would feel more secure driving an EV. Thirdly, EV-rental does not seem to have a large additional effect on the stage-of-change towards EV-adoption of the participants. Lastly, the driving patterns of EVs do not seem to indicate serious limitations regarding driving distance, parking time and the destinations that have been visited, as compared to the driving patterns of conventional rental cars.

  • 26.
    Langbroek, Joram Hendrik Maarten
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Traffic Research, CTR. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    A stated adaptation instrument for studying travel patterns after electric vehicle adoption2018In: Transportation Research Procedia, ISSN 2324-9935, E-ISSN 2352-1465, Vol. 32, p. 464-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes and evaluates a stated adaptation instrument to investigate the effects of a transition towards electric vehicles on travel behaviour. The respondents were equipped with an “imaginary” electric vehicle with a specific range and were asked whether they wanted to make changes in an activity-travel schedule they had previously registered. It has been found that electric vehicle use may increase car use, and that activities are likely to be cancelled in case of problems with range limitations. In this paper, the validity, reliability and practical implementation of this stated adaptation experiment are discussed.

  • 27.
    Langbroek, Joram H.M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Cebecauer, Matej
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Malmsten, Jon
    Solkompaniet.
    Franklin, Joel P.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Susilo, Yusak O.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, System Analysis and Economics.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Electric vehicle rental and electric vehicle adoptionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Li, Yuchao
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Johansson, Karl H.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).
    A hierarchical control system for smart parking lots with automated vehicles: Improve efficiency by leveraging prediction of human drivers2019In: Proceedings 2019 18TH EUROPEAN CONTROL CONFERENCE (ECC), IEEE , 2019, p. 2675-2681Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we introduce a hierarchical architecture for management of multiple automated vehicles in a parking lot provided the existence of human-driven vehicles. The proposed architecture consists of three layers: behavior prediction, vehicle coordination and maneuver control, with the first two sitting in the infrastructure and the third one equipped on individual vehicles. We assume all three layers share a consistent view of the environment by considering it as a grid world. The grid occupancy is modeled by the prediction layer via collecting information from automated vehicles and predicting human-driven vehicles. The coordination layer assigns parking spots and grants permissions for vehicles to move. The vehicle control embraces the distributed model predictive control (MPC) technique to resolve local conflicts occurred due to the simplified vehicle models used in the design of the prediction and coordination layers. Numerical evaluation shows the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  • 29.
    Lima, Pedro F.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Scania CV AB, Res & Dev, S-15187 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Pereira, Goncalo Collares
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. Scania CV AB, Res & Dev, S-15187 Södertälje, Sweden..
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Experimental validation of model predictive control stability for autonomous driving2018In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 81, p. 244-255Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the design of time-varying model predictive control of an autonomous vehicle in the presence of input rate constraints such that closed-loop stability is guaranteed. Stability is proved via Lyapunov techniques by adding a terminal state constraint and a terminal cost to the controller formulation. The terminal set is the maximum positive invariant set of a multi-plant description of the vehicle linear time-varying model. The terminal cost is an upper-bound on the infinite cost-to-go incurred by applying a linear-quadratic regulator control law. The proposed control design is experimentally tested and successfully stabilizes an autonomous Scania construction truck in an obstacle avoidance scenario.

  • 30. Lima, Pedro F.
    et al.
    Pereira, Goncalo Collares
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Mathematics (Dept.), Optimization and Systems Theory.
    Progress Maximization Model Predictive Controller2018In: 2018 21ST INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC), IEEE , 2018, p. 1075-1082Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the problem of progress maximization (i.e., traveling time minimization) along a given path for autonomous vehicles. Progress maximization plays an important role not only in racing, but also in efficient and safe autonomous driving applications. The progress maximization problem is formulated as a model predictive controller, where the vehicle model is successively linearized at each time step, yielding a convex optimization problem. To ensure real-time feasibility, a kinematic vehicle model is used together with several linear approximations of the vehicle dynamics constraints. We propose a novel polytopic approximation of the 'g-g' diagram, which models the vehicle handling limits by constraining the lateral and longitudinal acceleration. Moreover, the tire slip angles are restricted to ensure that the tires of the vehicle always operate in their linear force region by limiting the lateral acceleration. We illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed controller in simulation, where a nonlinear dynamic vehicle model is controlled to maximize the progress along a track, taking into consideration possible obstacles.

  • 31.
    Lindell, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI). KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Engström Kurki, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI).
    Hur autonoma first mile last mile-fordonkan användas i Åkersberga år 2030för att bidra till hållbara transporter.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan autonoma fordon började få allt mer uppmärksamhet i media har det diskuterats hur dessa kan tänkas förändra transportsystemet. Samtidigt ökar kraven på hållbara transporter och tiden för att nå Europakommissionens mål om fossilfria bränslen år 2050 blir allt kortare. En av utmaningarna för att skapa ett mer hållbart samhälle är att förbättra de så kallade First Mile Last Mile (FMLM)-transporterna. Det här arbetet har därför inriktat sig på att undersöka hur autonoma FMLM-fordon kan användas för att skapa ett mer hållbart transportsystem. Arbetet har avgränsats till orten Åkersberga i Stockholms Län och hur de autonoma FMLM-fordonen kan användas som komplement till kollektivtrafiken år 2030. Arbetets syfte har därmed varit att ta fram ett förslag på ett autonomt FMLM-persontransportsystem som kan komplettera kollektivtrafiken i Åkersberga år 2030. Under arbetet har en litteraturstudie genomförts där transporttrender, resvanor och vad som krävs för att uppnå hållbar transport inom samtliga aspekter har undersökts. Under litteraturstudien undersöktes även vad det finns för autonoma FMLM-fordon och hur de används. Metoder som personas och scenarioteknik har använts för att undersöka hur de autonoma fordonen skulle komma att användas och vilka krav som ställs på desamma. Slutligen har ett förslag på implementering av autonoma FMLM-fordon i Åkersberga tagits fram, och dess påverkan på hållbarheten har studerats. Slutsatsen blev att autonoma FMLM-fordon, använda som ett tydligt komplement till den "traditionella" kollektivtrafiken, skulle kunna bidra till ett mer hållbart transportsystem i flera aspekter. Framför allt skulle det kunna förbättra tillgängligheten men även bidra till minskade utsläpp. Om det kommer vara relevant att använda autonoma FMLM-fordon i framtiden kommer dock bero på utvecklingen av tekniken och samhällets utformande. Därför kan en framtid med autonoma FMLM-fordon kännas rimlig idag men det finns inga garantier för att det kommer vara så år 2030.

  • 32.
    Lorenzo Varela, Juan Manuel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. CTS.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Jonsson, R. Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS.
    User attitudes towards a corporate Mobility as a Service2018Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility as a service (MaaS) envisages enabling a co-operative and interconnected single transport market which provides users with hassle free mobility. Among MaaS postulated benefits, MaaS enthusiasts claim that MaaS solutions could persuade people to give up their car. Conversely, there is a fear that MaaS could in fact induce less sustainable travel, by means of inducing extra demand, and even attract current public transport users towards taxi and car-pool alternatives.

     

    In this study we investigate user attitudes and expectations towards a corporate MaaS solution, through a latent class and latent variable model. Results support that there is a trend from car ownership to usership. We also find no evidence that MaaS solutions could produce a shift from public transport users to other less space-efficient shared-mobility solutions such as taxis or car-pool alternatives under our experiment conditions. In connection with user’s preference to share a car journey with strangers, we find the existence of two opposite trends. This finding suggests that there might be appetite for both types of solutions, where users could choose between private or shared journeys by car. Moreover, we find that normative beliefs impact user mobility styles, and that the need and feeling for flexibility is found to be one of the key factors for users to embrace a MaaS solution.

  • 33.
    Nigicser, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Valerio, Turri
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Arat, Mustafa Ali
    The Goodyear Rubber & Tire Company.
    Lima Simões da Silva, Eduardo
    DTU Space.
    Predictive Vehicle Motion Control for Post-Crash Scenarios2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an active safety system for passenger vehicles designed to mitigate secondary collisions after an initial impact. Thecontrol objective is to minimize lateral deviation from the known original path while achieving a safe heading angle after the initialcollision. A hierarchical controller architecture is proposed: the higher layer is formulated as a linear time-varying model predictivecontroller that defines the virtual control moment input; the lower layer deploys a rule-based controller that realizes the requestedmoment. The designed control system is tested and validated on a high-fidelity vehicle dynamics simulator.

  • 34.
    Pereira, Gonçalo Collares
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Svensson, Lars
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.).
    Lima, Pedro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control.
    Lateral Model Predictive Control for Over-Actuated Autonomous Vehicle2017In: 2017 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2017, p. 310-316, article id 7995737Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a lateral controller is proposed for an over-Actuated vehicle. The controller is formulated as a linear time-varying model predictive controller. The aim of the controller is to track a desired path smoothly, by making use of the vehicle crabbing capability (sideways movement) and minimizing the magnitude of curvature used. To do this, not only the error to the path is minimized, but also the error to the desired orientation and the control signals requests. The controller uses an extended kinematic model that takes into consideration the vehicle crabbing capability and is able to track not only kinematically feasible paths, but also plan and track over non-feasible discontinuous paths. Ackermann steering geometry is used to transform the control requests, curvature, and crabbing angle, to wheel angles. Finally, the controller performance is evaluated first by simulation and, after, by means of experimental tests on an over-Actuated autonomous research vehicle.

  • 35.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Possibilities and barriers in ride-sharing in work commuting – a case study in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand possibilities and barriers for ride-sharing in work commuting, 451 persons living in the same suburban area and working at the same site were invited to join a ride-sharing program and use a mobile application. Two quantitative web surveys and 16 in-depth interviews have been performed. The results have been analysed using social practice theories as an analytical lens. The participants understood the benefits with the ride-sharing practice, but out of the 451 invited participants, only 8 downloaded the required mobile application for the ride-sharing program. Different to previous results in the literature, trust and security were not seen as issues in this case. Instead the expected loss of flexibility was seen as the main barrier. The participants found a meaning in “being a green commuter” and understood that ride-sharing could contribute to decrease challenges of congestion, environmental impact, and overfull parking places. However, they rated their own current flexibility and convenience in commuting higher than the expected benefits from ride-sharing.

  • 36.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Self-driving shuttles as a complement to public transport – a characterization and classification2018In: Proceedings of 7th Transport Research Arena TRA2018, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transportation is a top priority challenge for many cities and urban regions. To reach that, an attractive public transport plays a key role. In this paper an analysis of how the technology of self-driving vehicles, and in particular shuttles for about 6-20 passengers, can complement and improve attractively in public transport. Self-driving shuttles provide a new component to public transport, as smaller vehicles can operate on a higher frequency to a cost of the same order of magnitude as conventional larger buses. Six types of applications of self-driving shuttles in public transport are identified: Feeder line, Truncation of high capacity line, Cross connections, Center line, On-demand feeder line, and Within-area service (line or on demand). The application types are exemplified by two potential cases in Stockholm, and implementation barriers and strategies are discussed. The classification, together with examples from on-going applications, suggests that SD shuttles can contribute to public transport already without being fully self-driving everywhere.

  • 37.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kottenhoff, Karl
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Centres, The KTH Railway Group.
    Självkörande fordon som komplement till kollektivtrafiken – en förstudie för Stockholm2017Report (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Koutoulas, Anastasios
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Fu, Jiali
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Rumpler, Romain
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Behrends, Sönke
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Glav, Ragnar
    Scania CV AB.
    Cederstav, Fredrik
    Volvo AB.
    Brolinsson, Märta
    Stockholms Stad.
    Off-peak City Logistics – A Case Study in Stockholm2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two heavy trucks have been operated in Stockholm city center during night time for e period of one and a half years. New technology has been tested: one the trucks was an electric hybrid with zone management and one was a PIEK certified biogas truck. The two trucks have been operated in different delivery schemes: on dedicated and one consolidated. The off-peak trial has been assessed in from four different perspectives: noise, transport efficiency, users and policy, and socioeconomic aspects. In addition, a literature survey has been performed.  

    Noise produced while travelling with the two trucks tested is not disturbing. The main challenge is noise produced during unloading, and in particular in areas where the background noise is low.

    Transportation efficiency is improved from several perspectives compared with daytime deliveries: transport speed increased, fuel consumption decreased and service times decreased. However, one conclusion from the project is that it is challenging to compare daytime deliveries with off-peak deliveries for an individual truck, since the routing will be different depending on the time of the day even if the delivery points are the same. The reason is that the routing during daytime will be optimized to take congestion into account. Therefore, if general conclusions are to be drawn, data from more different trucks in different delivery schemes need to be collected and analyzed.

    Stakeholder interviews showed that the most important benefits are increased efficiency, shorter travel and deliver times, higher productivity both for carriers and receivers, less environmental impacts and fuel cost savings, as well as better working conditions when trucks are moved from rush hours to off-peak hours. The most important social costs are increased noise levels and noise disturbances, additional staff, equipment and wage costs as well as higher risks in handling goods deliveries at night times, especially in the case of unassisted deliveries. In general, the benefits exceed the costs.

    From the socio-economic analysis it is clear that the dominating type of external cost for daytime deliveries is contribution to congestion. This cost is reduced is nearly eliminated during off-peak deliveries. In addition, off-peak deliveries reduces CO2 emissions, but even more the emissions of air pollutants and can therefore contribute significantly to improving local air quality. The cost of noise is more than twice as big as for daytime deliveries.

    From the city’s perspective the most important remaining challenges are related to 1) Noise measurements and surveillance, 2) general requirements and surveillance, for example concerning vehicles, fuels, and emission levels that are to be allowed, 3) The responsibility for potential additional costs related to infrastructural changes needed. 

    The overall conclusion from the project is that the benefits from off-peak deliveries exceed the costs. The results from the project suggest that the concept of off-peak deliveries is beneficiary in the Stockholm region, and the off-peak delivery program is suggested to continue and be scaled up to involve more vehicles and other types of goods. During the upscaling it is relevant to continue to study effects on transport efficiency, noise levels, and potential business barriers that may arise.

  • 39.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI Swedish Natl Rd & Transport Res Inst, Box 55685, S-10215 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Effects of driverless vehicles - Comparing simulations to get a broader picture2019In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driverless vehicles have the potential to significantly affect the transport system, society, and environment. However, there are still many unanswered questions regarding what the development will look like, and there are several contradictory forces. This paper addresses the effects of driverless vehicles by combining the results from 26 simulation studies. Each simulation study focuses on a particular case, e.g. a certain mobility concept or geographical region. By combining and analysing the results from the 26 simulation studies, an overall picture of the effects of driverless vehicles is presented. In the paper, the following perspectives are considered: what types of application of driverless vehicles have been studied in literature; what effects these simulation studies predict; and what research gaps still exist related to the effects of driverless vehicles. The analysis shows that it is primarily driverless taxi applications in urban areas that have been studied. Some parameters, such as trip cost and waiting time, show small variations between the simulation studies. Other parameters, such as vehicle kilometres travelled (VKT), show larger variations and depend heavily on the assumptions concerning value of time and level of sharing. To increase the understanding of system level effects of driverless vehicles, simulations of more complex applications and aspects such as land use, congestion and energy consumption are considered.

  • 40.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    VTI.
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, Transport Planning, Economics and Engineering.
    Future scenarios for self-driving vehicles in Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of Self-Driving Vehicles (SDVs) is fast, and new pilots and tests are released every week. SDVs are predicted to have the potential to change mobility, human life and society.

    In literature, both negative and positive effects of SDVs are listed (Litman 2015; Fagnant and Kockelman 2015). Among the positive effects are increased traffic throughput leading to less congestion, improved mobility for people without a driver’s license, decreased need for parking spaces, and SDV as an enabler for shared mobility. On the other hand, SDVs are expected to increase the consumption of transport which leads to an increase in total vehicle kilometers travelled. This effect is further reinforced by empty vehicles driving around. This will increase the number of vehicles on the streets and lead to more congestion and increased energy usage. Since the SDV technology is expensive, segregation may be a consequence of the development. In addition there are several challenges related to for example legislation, standardization, infrastructure investments, privacy and security. The question is not if, but rather when SDVs will be common on our streets and roads, and if they will change our way of living, and if so, how?

    As we are in a potential mobility shift, and decisions made today will affect the future development, understanding possibilities and challenges for the future is important for many stakeholders. To this end a scenario-based future study was performed to derive a common platform for initiation of future research and innovation projects concerning SDVs in Sweden. This study will also be used in the ongoing governmental investigation about future regulations for SDVs on Swedish roads (Bjelfvenstam 2016). A third motivation for the study is to shed light on how demography, geography and political landscape can affect the development of new mobility services.

    Since there are many different forces that drive the development, often uncertain and sometimes in conflict with each other, a scenario planning approach was chosen. In previous studies, different types of predictions have been derived. Most of them are made by US scholars and are therefore naturally focused on the development in the US. The culture, both with respect to urban planning and public transport is different in Europe compared to the US.

    The work has been performed by an expert group and a smaller analysis team. The expert group has involved nearly 40 persons from 20 transport organizations, including public authorities, lawyers, city planners, researchers, transport service suppliers, and vehicle manufacturers. The expert group met three times, each time focusing on a specific theme: 1) trend analysis, 2) defining scenario axes of uncertainty, and 3) consequence analysis. The analysis team, consisting of the present three authors and two future strategists, has analyzed, refined and condensed the material from the expert group.

    During the project certain trends and strategic uncertainties were identified by the expert group. The uncertainties that were identified as most important for the development of SDVs in Sweden are: 1) whether the sharing economy becomes a new norm or not, and 2) whether city planners, authorities and politicians will be proactive in the development of cities and societies or not, especially regarding the transportation system. This led to four scenarios: A) “Same, same but all the difference” – a green, individualistic society, B) “Sharing is the new black” – a governmentally driven innovation society based on sharing, C) “Follow the path” – an individualistic society based on development in the same direction as today, and D) “What you need is what you get” – a commercially driven innovation society where sharing is a key.

    In the paper, we describe the scenarios and the process to derive them in more detail. We also present an analysis of the consequences for the development of SDVs in the four scenarios, including predictions concerning pace of development, level of self-driving, fleet size, travel demand and vehicle kilometers travelled. The paper also includes a discussion and comparison with other studies on the development of SDVs in the US, Europe and Asia.

  • 41.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Kristoffersson, Ida
    Mattsson, Lars-Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Where will self-driving vehicles take us? Scenarios for the development of automated vehicles with sweden as a case study2019In: Autonomous Vehicles and Future Mobility / [ed] Pierluigi Coppola, Domokos Esztergár-Kiss, Elsevier, 2019, 1Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Plessen, Mogens Graf
    et al.
    IMT Sch Adv Studies Lucca, Piazza S Francesco 19, I-55100 Lucca, Italy..
    Lima, Pedro F.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Mårtensson, Jonas
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Bemporad, Alberto
    IMT Sch Adv Studies Lucca, Piazza S Francesco 19, I-55100 Lucca, Italy..
    Wahlberg, Bo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Automatic Control. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Centres, ACCESS Linnaeus Centre. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Trajectory Planning Under Vehicle Dimension Constraints Using Sequential Linear Programming2017In: 2017 IEEE 20TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS (ITSC), IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a spatial-based trajectory planning method for automated vehicles under actuator, obstacle avoidance, and vehicle dimension constraints. Starting from a nonlinear kinematic bicycle model, vehicle dynamics are transformed to a road-aligned coordinate frame with path along the road centerline replacing time as the dependent variable. Space-varying vehicle dimension constraints are linearized around a reference path to pose convex optimization problems. Such constraints do not require to inflate obstacles by safety-margins and therefore maximize performance in very constrained environments. A sequential linear programming (SLP) algorithm is motivated. A linear program (LP) is solved at each SLP-iteration. The relation between LP formulation and maximum admissible traveling speeds within vehicle tire friction limits is discussed. The proposed method is evaluated in a roomy and in a tight maneuvering driving scenario, whereby a comparison to a semi-analytical clothoid-based path planner is given. Effectiveness is demonstrated particularly for very constrained environments, requiring to account for constraints and planning over the entire obstacle constellation space.

  • 43. Sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    et al.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Brolinson, Marta
    Shifting urban freight deliveries to the off-peak hours: a review of theory and practice2017In: Transport reviews, ISSN 0144-1647, E-ISSN 1464-5327, Vol. 37, no 4, p. 521-543Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a comprehensive review of the literature on off-peak hour deliveries (OPHD). The review identifies different approaches and policy levers used in the past, such as the laissez-faire approach, a road pricing approach, an incentives approach, and a regulatory approach. The paper also identifies different delivery reception schemes discussed in the literature. The authors complement the theory with a synthesis of pilot tests and the analysis of a set of interviews with practitioners (from the public sector and other organisations) in charge of OPHD programmes. The results from this review show the potential benefits that these programmes could bring about, the challenges faced in the early stages - along with potential solutions - and the significant progress that has been made in this domain in the last decade. According to the review, the results from the pilot tests tend to be positive, suggesting the importance of these programmes to reach more efficient and sustainable transportation systems.

  • 44.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. humanexperience.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Aligning private and public domains for sustainable disruptive innovation2016In: Proceedings og 17th International CINet Conference / [ed] Dr. Paolo Neirotti, Turin, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the constellation of various actors from private and public

    sectors represented by three companies, a municipality, a non-profit

    organization, a research lab and users to collaborate on bringing forward a

    sustainability driven disruptive innovation. The purpose of the paper is to

    investigate how the various actors’ interests and contributions influence the

    management of the collaboration setup and what barriers and enablers boost or

    impede the outcome of the setup, i.e. deploying an innovation with sustainability

    promise. We argue that the alignment of diverse actors’ interests and aims for

    the innovation in collaborative settings is crucial for the collaboration to lead to

    desirable outcomes. However, only alignment at an abstract level cannot ensure

    success even when actors bring competencies that balance the innovation

    requirements. Rather, creating cohesion and commitment of all actors

    simultaneously at a concrete level is necessary. The integration of new

    approaches to collaboration such as design methods may strengthen

    commitment despite actors coming from different organizational cultures and

    traditions.

  • 45.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. humanexperience.
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Co-creation with diverse actors for sustainability innovation2017In: Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17), Vol. 8: Human Behaviour in Design, Vancouver, Canada, 21.-25.08.2017 / [ed] Anja Maier, Stanko Škec, Harrison Kim, Michael Kokkolaras, Josef Oehmen, Georges Fadel, Filippo Salustri, Mike Van der Loos, Vancouver, 2017, Vol. 8Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability driven innovations differ from current established technologies imposing new

    requirements on users and often interdependent with other actors’ changes. Strategic Niche Management

    (SNM) stresses interactions between actors through niches i.e. protected spaces for experimentation to

    support innovation. However, it is unclear what activities are necessary when different actors are

    involved in developing and diffusing sustainability innovation. This paper aims at identifying activities

    crucial for sustainability innovation in an implemented mobility project. The results show that cocreation

    through iterations and reflections by combinations of diverse actors and users can be considered

    a core process for sustainability innovation. Six activities are identified as critical: matching the

    interdependencies by combining the actors’ diverse competences and resources; facilitating to steer the

    group of actors into actions; engaging users at early stages of innovation; trying to drive change by

    offering the users an opportunity; co-creating through a multitude of actors with the development and

    usage simultaneously; steering and facilitating to enable co-creation.

  • 46.
    Sopjani, Liridona
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    User involvement in disruptive innovation – A study on users of a light electric vehicle sharing system2016In: Proceedings of 23rd Innovation and Product Development Management Conference / [ed] Nuran ACUR, Glasgow, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the extent to which user involvement in disruptive innovation

    influences the users in terms of their experiences when exposed to such innovation for

    a period of time. The study is conducted in an on-going research project undertaken in

    collaboration with academia and private stakeholders, which is developing and

    implementing a product-service system for light electric vehicles. This solution is

    environmentally driven and new in two ways: it integrates a different type of vehicle

    and introduces a new service concept i.e. the caretaker concept. The users are studied

    while they interact with the innovation in their own environments, where emphasis

    has been placed on the experiences of these users when disruptive innovations as such

    are introduced into their everyday life. Data from the first seven users (caretakers)

    were collected through a survey and semi-structured interviews over two periods of

    time, from which early user characteristics are presented and user experiences when

    deploying disruptive innovations, as well as enablers and barriers for integrating these

    into daily life. As disruptive innovations tend to redefine or restructure market

    trajectories to some extent, understanding these user segments and their experienced

    enablers and barriers may facilitate the creation of better strategies on how to make

    these innovations more desirable for society at large. Findings suggest that user

    involvement positively influences users experiences toward adapting to new ideas

    with regards to mobility.

  • 47.
    Sopjani, Sanije
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Janhager Stier, Jenny
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development.
    Ritzén, Sofia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Integrated Product Development. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.).
    Hesselgren, Mia
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Product and Service Design. KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC, Green Leap.
    Georén, Peter
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM).
    Involving users and user roles in the transition to sustainable mobility systems: The case of light electric vehicle sharing in Sweden2019In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 71, p. 207-221Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-carbon mobility alternatives, such as shared services integrating light electric vehicles, support transitions to sustainable transport systems. However, new products and services are not enough, as changes must also incorporate the practices of travelling, infrastructure, and mobility cultures in which users of mobility solutions are core stakeholders. This paper argues that userinvolvement is necessary in sustainable innovation processes but that the expected diversity of user roles and their involvement can also lead to contrasting outcomes for sustainable innovation transitions. Guided by theory in user involvement, this study investigated users and nonusers of light electric vehicles in a sharing mobility service system set up as living lab in two large workplaces in Sweden. Fifty-one interviews with employees at the workplaces were conducted during the implementation process and analysed combined with a questionnaire and data from system tracking through sensor technology. The paper finds that both users and non-users are co-creators in building momentum for sustainable mobility alternatives and provides a spectrum of user roles with defined characteristics. Four roles are distinguished within this spectrum: vigilant users, passive collaborators, active decision makers and ambassadors. We suggest that a convergent activation strategy is deployed for involving a full spectrum of users in order to capture their insights in ways that positively affect transition. Such a strategy addresses users and non-users as part of decision-making concerning alternatives and cultivates a culture of user collaboration, while also enabling a plurality of contributions in order to challenge existing regimes and established practices among individuals

  • 48.
    Stead, Dominic
    et al.
    Faculty of Architecture and the Built Environment, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 134, Delft 2628BL, the Netherlands.
    Vaddadi, Bhavana
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Automated vehicles and how they may affect urban form: A review of recent scenario studies2019In: Cities, ISSN 0264-2751, E-ISSN 1873-6084, Vol. 92, p. 125-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Motorisation in cities has fundamentally transformed urban patterns of development, ranging from residential parking and density standards of single buildings on one hand to urban infrastructure construction and the expansion of entire cities on the other. The introduction of automated vehicles (AVs) has enormous potential to transform urbanisation patterns and urban design even further. However, the direction in which this technology will change the city is contested and a diverse set of views can be found. This paper provides a review of scenarios on these issues to date. Although some scenario studies provide useful insights about urban growth and change, very few consider detailed impacts of AVs on urban form, such as the density and mix of functions, the layout of urban development and the accessibility of locations, including the distance to transit. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

  • 49.
    Susilo, Yusak
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Transport Studies, CTS. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Chee, Pei Nen
    Darwish, Rami
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Early Lessons From an Autonomous Bus Deployment on a Public Road in Stockholm2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Svensson, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Masson, Lola
    Mohan, Naveen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Ward, Erik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Robotics, perception and learning, RPL.
    Pernestål Brenden, Anna
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Centres, Integrated Transport Research Lab, ITRL.
    Feng, Lei
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Törngren, Martin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Embedded Control Systems.
    Safe Stop Trajectory Planning for Highly Automated Vehicles:An Optimal Control Problem Formulation2018In: 2018 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium (IV), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2018, p. 517-522, article id 8500536Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Highly automated road vehicles need the capabilityof stopping safely in a situation that disrupts continued normaloperation, e.g. due to internal system faults. Motion planningfor safe stop differs from nominal motion planning, since thereis not a specific goal location. Rather, the desired behavior isthat the vehicle should reach a stopped state, preferably outsideof active lanes. Also, the functionality to stop safely needs tobe of high integrity. The first contribution of this paper isto formulate the safe stop problem as a benchmark optimalcontrol problem, which can be solved by dynamic programming.However, this solution method cannot be used in real-time. Thesecond contribution is to develop a real-time safe stop trajectoryplanning algorithm, based on selection from a precomputedset of trajectories. By exploiting the particular properties ofthe safe stop problem, the cardinality of the set is decreased,making the algorithm computationally efficient. Furthermore, amonitoring based architecture concept is proposed, that ensuresdependability of the safe stop function. Finally, a proof of conceptsimulation using the proposed architecture and the safe stoptrajectory planner is presented.

12 1 - 50 of 57
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf