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  • 1.
    Banerjee, Saikat
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Interacting Dirac Matter2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The discovery of graphene in 2004 has led to a surge of activities focused on the theoretical and experimental studies of materials hosting linearly dispersive quasiparticles during the last decade. Rapid expansion in the list of materials having similar properties to graphene has led to the emergence of a new class of materials known as the Dirac materials. The low energy quasiparticles in this class of materials are described by a Dirac-like equation in contrast to the Schrödinger equation which governs the low energy dynamics in any conventional materials such as metals. The Dirac fermions, as we call these low-energy quasiparticles, in a wide range of materials ranging from the d-wave superconductors, graphene to the surface states of topological insulators share the common property. The particles move around as if they have lost their mass. This feature results in a completely new set of physical effects consisting of various transport and thermodynamic quantities, that are absent in conventional metals.

    This thesis is devoted to studying the properties of bosonic analogs of the commonly known Dirac materials where the quasiparticle are fermionic. In chapter one, we discuss the microscopic origin of the Dirac equation in several fermionic and bosonic systems. We observe identical features of the Dirac materials with quasiparticles of either statistics when the interparticle interaction is absent. Dirac materials with both types of quasiparticles possess the nodal excitations that are described by an effective Dirac-like equation. The possible physical effects due to the linear dispersions in fermionic and bosonic Dirac materials are also outlined.

    In chapter two, we propose a system of superconducting grains arranged in honeycomb lattice as a realization for Bosonic Dirac Materials (BDM). The underlying microscopic dynamics, which give rise to the emergence of Dirac structure in the spectrum of the collective phase oscillations, is discussed in detail. Similarities and differences of BDM systems to the conventional Dirac materials with fermionic quasiparticles are also mentioned. Chapter three is dedicated to the detailed analysis of the interaction effects on the stability and renormalization of the conical Dirac band structure. We find that the type of interaction dictates the possible fate of renormalized Dirac cone in both fermionic and bosonic Dirac materials. We study interaction effects in four different individual systems : (a) Dirac fermions in graphene interacting via Coulomb interactions, (b) Dirac fermions subjected to an onsite Hubbard repulsion, (c) Coulomb repulsion in charged Cooper pairs in honeycomb lattice and (d) Dirac magnons interacting via Heisenberg exchange interaction. The possibility of interaction induced gap opening at the Dirac nodal point described is also discussed in these cases.

    Chapter four mainly concerns the study of a related topic of the synthetic gauge fields. We discuss the possibility of Landau quantization in neutral particles. Possible experimental evidence in toroidal cold atomic traps is also mentioned. A connection to Landau levels in case of magnons is also described. We finally conclude our thesis in chapter five and discuss the possible future directions that can be taken as an extension for our works in interacting Dirac materials.

  • 2. Behrends, Jan
    et al.
    Bardarson, Jens H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory. Max Planck Institute, Germany.
    Strongly angle-dependent magnetoresistance in Weyl semimetals with long-range disorder2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 6, article id 060201Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chiral anomaly in Weyl semimetals states that the left- and right-handed Weyl fermions, constituting the low energy description, are not individually conserved, resulting, for example, in a negative magnetoresistance in such materials. Recent experiments see strong indications of such an anomalous resistance response; however, with a response that at strong fields is more sharply peaked for parallel magnetic and electric fields than expected from simple theoretical considerations. Here, we uncover a mechanism, arising from the interplay between the angle-dependent Landau-level structure and long-range scalar disorder, that has the same phenomenology. In particular, we analytically show, and numerically confirm, that the internode scattering time decreases exponentially with the angle between the magnetic field and the Weyl node separation in the large field limit, while it is insensitive to this angle at weak magnetic fields. Since, in the simplest approximation, the internode scattering time is proportional to the anomaly-related conductivity, this feature may be related to the experimental observations of a sharply peaked magnetoresistance.

  • 3. Behrends, Jan
    et al.
    Rhim, Jun-Won
    Liu, Shang
    Grushin, Adolfo G.
    Bardarson, Jens H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory. Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Komplexer Systeme, Germany.
    Nodal-line semimetals from Weyl superlattices2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 24, article id 245101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The existence and topological classification of lower-dimensional Fermi surfaces is often tied to the crystal symmetries of the underlying lattice systems. Artificially engineered lattices, such as heterostructures and other superlattices, provide promising avenues to realize desired crystal symmetries that protect lower-dimensional Fermi surfaces, such as nodal lines. In this work, we investigate a Weyl semimetal subjected to spatially periodic onsite potential, giving rise to several phases, including a nodal-line semimetal phase. In contrast to proposals that purely focus on lattice symmetries, the emergence of the nodal line in this setup does not require small spin-orbit coupling, but rather relies on its presence. We show that the stability of the nodal line is understood from reflection symmetry and a combination of a fractional lattice translation and charge-conjugation symmetry. Depending on the choice of parameters, this model exhibits drumhead surface states that are exponentially localized at the surface, or weakly localized surface states that decay into the bulk at all energies.

  • 4.
    Belonoshko, Anatoly B.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Lukinov, Timofei
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Theoretical Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Fu, Jie
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Zhao, Jijun
    Davis, Sergio
    Simak, Sergei I.
    Stabilization of body-centred cubic iron under inner-core conditions2017In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 312-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Earth's solid core is mostly composed of iron. However, despite being central to our understanding of core properties, the stable phase of iron under inner-core conditions remains uncertain. The two leading candidates are hexagonal close-packed and body-centred cubic (bcc) crystal structures, but the dynamic and thermodynamic stability of bcc iron under inner-core conditions has been challenged. Here we demonstrate the stability of the bcc phase of iron under conditions consistent with the centre of the core using ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. We find that the bcc phase is stabilized at high temperatures by a diffusion mechanism that arises due to the dynamical instability of the phase at lower temperatures. On the basis of our simulations, we reinterpret experimental data as support for the stability of bcc iron under inner-core conditions. We suggest that the diffusion of iron atoms in solid state may explain both the anisotropy and the low shear modulus of the inner core.

  • 5. Bera, Soumya
    et al.
    Martynec, Thomas
    Schomerus, Henning
    Heidrich-Meisner, Fabian
    Hjörleifur Bardarson, Jens
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory. Max-Planck-Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Germany.
    One-particle density matrix characterization of many-body localization2017In: Annalen der Physik, ISSN 0003-3804, E-ISSN 1521-3889, Vol. 529, no 7, article id 1600356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study interacting fermions in one dimension subject to random, uncorrelated onsite disorder, a paradigmatic model of many-body localization (MBL). This model realizes an interaction-driven quantum phase transition between an ergodic and a many-body localized phase, with the transition occurring in the many-body eigenstates. We propose a single-particle framework to characterize these phases by the eigenstates (the natural orbitals) and the eigenvalues (the occupation spectrum) of the one-particle density matrix (OPDM) in individual many-body eigenstates. As a main result, we find that the natural orbitals are localized in the MBL phase, but delocalized in the ergodic phase. This qualitative change in these single-particle states is a many-body effect, since without interactions the single-particle energy eigenstates are all localized. The occupation spectrum in the ergodic phase is thermal in agreement with the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis, while in the MBL phase the occupations preserve a discontinuity at an emergent Fermi edge. This suggests that the MBL eigenstates are weakly dressed Slater determinants, with the eigenstates of the underlying Anderson problem as reference states. We discuss the statistical properties of the natural orbitals and of the occupation spectrum in the two phases and as the transition is approached. Our results are consistent with the existing picture of emergent integrability and localized integrals of motion, or quasiparticles, in the MBL phase. We emphasize the close analogy of the MBL phase to a zero-temperature Fermi liquid: in the studied model, the MBL phase is adiabatically connected to the Anderson insulator and the occupation-spectrum discontinuity directly indicates the presence of quasiparticles localized in real space. Finally, we show that the same picture emerges for interacting fermions in the presence of an experimentally-relevant bichromatic lattice and thereby demonstrate that our findings are not limited to a specific model.

  • 6.
    Bergqvist, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Material Physics.
    Eriksson, Olle
    Bergman, Anders
    Hellsvik, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Atomistic Spin Dynamics: Foundations and Applications2017Book (Other academic)
  • 7. Bovo, L.
    et al.
    Twengström, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Petrenko, O. A.
    Fennell, T.
    Gingras, M. J. P.
    Bramwell, S. T.
    Henelius, P.
    Special temperatures in frustrated ferromagnets,Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 8. Dufouleur, J.
    et al.
    Xypakis, E.
    Buechner, B.
    Giraud, R.
    Bardarson, Jens Hjörleifur
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory. Max Planck Institute for Physics - Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Germany.
    Suppression of scattering in quantum confined 2D helical Dirac systems2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 97, no 7, article id 075401Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport properties of helical Dirac fermions in disordered quantum wires are investigated in the large energy limit. In the quasiballistic regime, the conductance and the Fano factor are sensitive to disorder only when the Fermi energy is close to an opening of a transverse mode. In the limit of a large number of transverse modes, transport properties are insensitive to the geometry of the nanowire or the nature and strength of the disorder but, instead, are dominated by the properties of the interface between the ohmic contact and the nanowire. In the case of a heavily doped Dirac metallic contact, the conductance is proportional to the energy with an average transmission T = pi/4 and a Fano factor of F similar or equal to 0.13. Those results can be generalized to a much broader class of contacts, the exact values of T and F depending on the model used for the contacts. The energy dependence of Aharonov-Bohm oscillations is determined, revealing a damped oscillatory behavior and phase shifts due to the one-dimensional subband quantization and which are not the signature of the nontrivial topology.

  • 9. Erlingsson, Sigurdur I.
    et al.
    Manolescu, Andrei
    Nemnes, George Alexandru
    Bardarson, Jens H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Sanchez, David
    Reversal of Thermoelectric Current in Tubular Nanowires2017In: Physical Review Letters, ISSN 0031-9007, E-ISSN 1079-7114, Vol. 119, no 3, article id 036804Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We calculate the charge current generated by a temperature bias between the two ends of a tubular nanowire. We show that in the presence of a transversal magnetic field the current can change sign; i.e., electrons can either flow from the hot to the cold reservoir, or in the opposite direction, when the temperature bias increases. This behavior occurs when the magnetic field is sufficiently strong, such that Landau and snaking states are created, and the energy dispersion is nonmonotonic with respect to the longitudinal wave vector. The sign reversal can survive in the presence of impurities. We predict this result for core-shell nanowires, for uniform nanowires with surface states due to the Fermi level pinning, and for topological insulator nanowires.

  • 10.
    Ferreiros, Yago
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Vozmediano, Maria A. H.
    Elastic gauge fields and Hall viscosity of Dirac magnons2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 97, no 5, article id 054404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze the coupling of elastic lattice deformations to the magnon degrees of freedom of magnon Dirac materials. For a honeycomb ferromagnet we find that, as happens in the case of graphene, elastic gauge fields appear coupled to the magnon pseudospinors. For deformations that induce constant pseudomagnetic fields, the spectrum around the Dirac nodes splits into pseudo-Landau levels. We show that when a Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction is considered, a topological gap opens in the system and a Chern-Simons effective action for the elastic degrees of freedom is generated. Such a term encodes a phonon Hall viscosity response, entirely generated by quantum fluctuations of magnons living in the vicinity of the Dirac points. The magnon Hall viscosity vanishes at zero temperature, and grows as temperature is raised and the states around the Dirac points are increasingly populated.

  • 11.
    Ferreiros, Yago
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Zyuzin, A. A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Bardarson, Jens H
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Anomalous Nernst and thermal Hall effects in tilted Weyl semimetals2017In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 96, no 11, article id 115202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the anomalous Nernst and thermal Hall effects in a linearized low-energy model of a tilted Weyl semimetal, with two Weyl nodes separated in momentum space. For inversion symmetric tilt, we give analytic expressions in two opposite limits: For a small tilt, corresponding to a type-I Weyl semimetal, the Nernst conductivity is finite and independent of the Fermi level; for a large tilt, corresponding to a type-II Weyl semimetal, it acquires a contribution depending logarithmically on the Fermi energy. This result is in a sharp contrast to the nontilted case, where the Nernst response is known to be zero in the linear model. The thermal Hall conductivity similarly acquires Fermi surface contributions, which add to the Fermi level-independent, zero-tilt result, and is suppressed as one over the tilt parameter at half filling in the type-II phase. In the case of inversion-breaking tilt, with the tilting vector of equal modulus in the two Weyl cones, all Fermi surface contributions to both anomalous responses cancel out, resulting in zero Nernst conductivity. We discuss two possible experimental setups, representing open and closed thermoelectric circuits.

  • 12. Fransson, J.
    et al.
    Thonig, D.
    Bessarab, P. F.
    Bhattacharjee, S.
    Hellsvik, Johan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Nordström, L.
    Microscopic theory for coupled atomistic magnetization and lattice dynamics2017In: Physical Review Materials, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 1, no 7, article id 074404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A coupled atomistic spin and lattice dynamics approach is developed which merges the dynamics of these two degrees of freedom into a single set of coupled equations of motion. The underlying microscopic model comprises local exchange interactions between the electron spin and magnetic moment and the local couplings between the electronic charge and lattice displacements. An effective action for the spin and lattice variables is constructed in which the interactions among the spin and lattice components are determined by the underlying electronic structure. In this way, expressions are obtained for the electronically mediated couplings between the spin and lattice degrees of freedom, besides the well known interatomic force constants and spin-spin interactions. These former susceptibilities provide an atomistic ab initio description for the coupled spin and lattice dynamics. It is important to notice that this theory is strictly bilinear in the spin and lattice variables and provides a minimal model for the coupled dynamics of these subsystems and that the two subsystems are treated on the same footing. Questions concerning time-reversal and inversion symmetry are rigorously addressed and it is shown how these aspects are absorbed in the tensor structure of the interaction fields. By means of these results regarding the spin-lattice coupling, simple explanations of ionic dimerization in double-antiferromagnetic materials, as well as charge density waves induced by a nonuniform spin structure, are given. In the final parts, coupled equations of motion for the combined spin and lattice dynamics are constructed, which subsequently can be reduced to a form which is analogous to the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations for spin dynamics and a damped driven mechanical oscillator for the ionic motion. It is important to notice, however, that these equations comprise contributions that couple these descriptions into one unified formulation. Finally, Kubo-like expressions for the discussed exchanges in terms of integrals over the electronic structure and, moreover, analogous expressions for the damping within and between the subsystems are provided. The proposed formalism and types of couplings enable a step forward in the microscopic first principles modeling of coupled spin and lattice quantities in a consistent format.

  • 13.
    Fu, Jie
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory. Ningbo Univ, Peoples R China; Dalian Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Zhao, Jijun
    Plyasunov, Andrey V.
    Belonoshko, Anatoly
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Ab initio molecular dynamics study of fluid H2O-CO2 mixture in broad pressure-temperature range2017In: AIP Advances, ISSN 2158-3226, E-ISSN 2158-3226, Vol. 7, no 11, article id 115217Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Properties of H2O and CO2 fluid and their mixtures under extreme pressures and temperatures are poorly known yet critically important in a number of applications. Several hundreds of first-principles molecular dynamics (FPMD) runs have been performed to obtain the pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) data on supercritical H2O, CO2, and H2O-CO2 mixtures. The pressure-temperature (P-T) range are from 0.5 GPa to 104 GPa (48.5 GPa for CO2) and from 600 K to 4000 K. Based on these data, we evaluate several existing equations of state (EOS) for the fluid H2O, CO2, and H2O-CO2 mixture. The results show that the EOS for H2O from Belonoshko et al. [Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 381-387; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 55, 3191-3208; Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 3611-3626; Comput. Geosci. 18, 1267-1269] not only can be used in the studied P-T range but also is accurate enough to be used for prediction of P-V-T data. In addition, IAPWS-95 EOS for H2O shows excellent extrapolation behavior beyond 1.0 GPa and 1273 K. However, for the case of CO2, none of the existing EOS produces data in agreement with the FPMD results. We created new EOS for CO2. The precision of the new EOS is tested by comparison to the calculated P-V-T data, fugacity coefficient of the CO2 fluid derived from high P-T experimental data as well as to the (very scarce) experimental volumetric data in the high P-T range. On the basis of our FPMD data we created a new EOS for H2O-CO2 mixture. The new EOS for the mixture is in reasonable agreement with experimental data.

  • 14.
    Gawedzki, Krzysztof
    et al.
    Univ Claude Bernard, Univ Lyon, ENS Lyon, CNRS,Lab Phys, F-69342 Lyon, France..
    Langmann, Edwin
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Moosavi, Per
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Finite-Time Universality in Nonequilibrium CFT2018In: Journal of statistical physics, ISSN 0022-4715, E-ISSN 1572-9613, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 353-378Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, remarkably simple exact results were presented about the dynamics of heat transport in the local Luttinger model for nonequilibrium initial states defined by position-dependent temperature profiles. We present mathematical details on how these results were obtained. We also give an alternative derivation using only algebraic relations involving the energy-momentum tensor which hold true in any unitary conformal field theory (CFT). This establishes a simple universal correspondence between initial temperature profiles and the resulting heat-wave propagation in CFT. We extend these results to larger classes of nonequilibrium states. It is proposed that such universal CFT relations provide benchmarks to identify nonuniversal properties of nonequilibrium dynamics in other models.

  • 15. Giblin, S. R.
    et al.
    Twengström, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    et al.,
    Pauling entropy, metastability and equilibrium in Dy2Ti2O7spin iceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Javanmard, Younes
    et al.
    Max Planck Inst Phys Komplexer Syst, D-01187 Dresden, Germany..
    Trapin, Daniele
    Max Planck Inst Phys Komplexer Syst, D-01187 Dresden, Germany..
    Bera, Soumya
    Indian Inst Technol, Dept Phys, Bombay 400076, Maharashtra, India..
    Bardarson, Jens H.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Heyl, Markus
    Max Planck Inst Phys Komplexer Syst, D-01187 Dresden, Germany..
    Sharp entanglement thresholds in the logarithmic negativity of disjoint blocks in the transverse-field Ising chain2018In: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, E-ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 20, article id 083032Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Entanglement has developed into an essential concept for the characterization of phases and phase transitions in ground states of quantum many-body systems. In this work we use the logarithmic negativity to study the spatial entanglement structure in the transverse-field Ising chain both in the ground state and at nonzero temperatures. Specifically, we investigate the entanglement between two disjoint blocks as a function of their separation, which can be viewed as the entanglement analog of a spatial correlation function. We find sharp entanglement thresholds at a critical distance beyond which the logarithmic negativity vanishes exactly and thus the two blocks become unentangled, which holds even in the presence of long-ranged quantum correlations, i.e., at the system's quantum critical point. Using time-evolving block decimation, we explore this feature as a function of temperature and size of the two blocks and present a simple model to describe our numerical observations.

  • 17. Mattesini, Maurizio
    et al.
    Belonoshko, Anatoly
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Tkalcic, Hrvoje
    Polymorphic Nature of Iron and Degree of Lattice Preferred Orientation Beneath the Earth's Inner Core Boundary2018In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 292-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deciphering the polymorphic nature and the degree of iron lattice-preferred orientation in the Earth's inner core holds a key to understanding the present status and evolution of the inner core. A multiphase lattice-preferred orientation pattern is obtained for the top 350 km of the inner core by means of the ab initio based Candy Wrapper Velocity Model coupled to a Monte Carlo phase discrimination scheme. The achieved geographic distribution of lattice alignment is characterized by two regions of freezing, namely within South America and the Western Central Pacific, that exhibit an uncommon high degree of lattice orientation. In contrast, widespread regions of melting of relatively weak lattice ordering permeate the rest of the inner core. The obtained multiphase lattice-preferred orientation pattern is in line with mantle-constrained geodynamo simulations and allows to setup an ad hoc mineral physics scenario for the complex Earth's inner core. It is found that the cubic phase of iron is the dominating iron polymorph in the outermost part of the inner core.

  • 18.
    Pozo, Oscar
    et al.
    Inst Ciencia Mat Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain.;CSIC, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Ferreiros, Yago
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Vozmediano, Maria A. H.
    Inst Ciencia Mat Madrid, Madrid 28049, Spain.;CSIC, Madrid 28049, Spain..
    Anisotropic fixed points in Dirac and Weyl semimetals2018In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, E-ISSN 2469-9969, Vol. 98, no 11, article id 115122Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effective low energy description of interacting Dirac and Weyl semimetals is that of massless quantum electrodynamics with several Lorentz breaking material parameters. We perform a renormalization group analysis of Coulomb interaction in anisotropic Dirac and Weyl semimetals and show that the anisotropy persists in the material systems at the infrared fixed point. In addition, a tilt of the fermion cones breaking inversion symmetry induces a magnetoelectric term in the electrodynamics of the material whose magnitude runs to match that of the electronic tilt at the fixed point.

  • 19.
    Twengström, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory. Department of physics, KTH.
    Spin ice and demagnetising theory2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Frustration, or the inability to simultaneously minimise all local interactions is, a phenomenon occurring in a broad number of physical systems. We will in this thesis focus on a class of frustrated ferromagnetic materials called spin ices and how both numerical and experimental techniques can be used to understand their properties. Spin ices show a number of peculiar properties such as low temperature residual entropy and magnetic monopole excitations. 

    Considering a dipolar Hamiltonian model with exchange interactions we verify a qualitative and previously established agreement with experimental data of the quantity χT/C , where χ is the magnetic susceptibility, T  the temperature and C the Curie parameter. We find a quantitative agreement by identifying that further near-neighbour interactions are sensitive probes of χT/C and the neutron structure factor, in particular its zone boundary scattering and relative peak intensities. 

    In systems passing from being governed by ferromagnetic interactions into potentially ordered anti-ferromagnets at low temperature we define special temperatures in close relation with real gases. These temperatures enable a new classication of "inverting" magnets of which spin ice is a member. 

    Due to rich complex long-range interactions in spin ice and a high sensitivity of the quantity χT/C, we identify demagnetising corrections to be crucial in extracting the correct physics. Apart from previously reported results we find the demagnetising factor to be clearly temperature and lattice structure dependent and not just shape dependent. The large moment of the Dy ions in Dy2Ti2O7  thus implies that an incorrect demagnetising treatment can shift the important features in χT/C  outside of the relevant temperature range considered. Employing our refined demagnetising theory we obtain good agreement with experiments down to sub-kelvin temperatures. 

    The magnetic ions in spin ice enable neutron scattering as an excellent tool to study spin ice. A massively parallel computer code is developed in order to obtain high resolution neutron scattering factors in Fourier space. These high resolution charts are in good agreement with carefully verified experimental data down to 350 mK.

  • 20.
    Twengström, Mikael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Bovo, L.
    Gingras, M. J. P.
    Bramwell, S. T.
    Henelius, Patrik
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Physics, Condensed Matter Theory.
    Microscopic aspects of magnetic lattice demagnetizing factors2017In: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 1, no 4, article id 044406Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The demagnetizing factor N is of both conceptual interest and practical importance. Considering localized magnetic moments on a lattice, we show that for nonellipsoidal samples, N depends on the spin dimensionality (Ising, XY, or Heisenberg) and orientation, as well as the sample shape and susceptibility. The generality of this result is demonstrated by means of a recursive analytic calculation as well as detailed Monte Carlo simulations of realistic model spin Hamiltonians. As an important check and application, we also make an accurate experimental determination of N for a representative collective paramagnet (i.e., the Dy2Ti2O7 spin ice compound) and show that the temperature dependence of the experimentally determined N agrees closely with our theoretical calculations. Our conclusion is that the well-established practice of approximating the true sample shape with "corresponding ellipsoids" for systems with long-range interactions will in many cases overlook important effects stemming from the microscopic aspects of the system under consideration.

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