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  • 1.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering. KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Cornelissen, Emile
    KWR Water Cycle Res Inst, Nieuwegein, Netherlands.;Nanyang Technol Univ, Nanyang Environm & Water Res Inst, Singapore Membrane Technol Ctr, Singapore, Singapore.;Univ Ghent, Particle & Interfacial Technol Grp, Ghent, Belgium..
    van de Wetering, Stephan
    Brabant Water NV Breda, Breda, Netherlands..
    van Dijk, Tim
    Brabant Water NV Breda, Breda, Netherlands..
    van Genuchten, Case
    Univ Utrecht, Fac Geosci, Dept Earth Sci Geochem, Utrecht, Netherlands..
    Bundschuh, Jochen
    Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Deputy Vice Chancellors Off Res & Innovat, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia.;Univ Southern Queensland, Fac Hlth Engn & Sci, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    van der Wal, Albert
    WUR, Dept Environm Technol, Wageningen, Netherlands.;Evides Water Co NV Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Land and Water Resources Engineering. Univ Southern Queensland, Int Ctr Appl Climate Sci, West St, Toowoomba, Qld, Australia..
    Arsenite removal in groundwater treatment plants by sequential Permanganate-Ferric treatment2018In: JOURNAL OF WATER PROCESS ENGINEERING, ISSN 2214-7144, Vol. 26, p. 221-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Dutch drinking water sector is actively investigating methods to reduce arsenic (As) to < 1 mu g/L in drinking water supply. We investigated (1) the effectiveness of sequential permanganate (MnO4-)-ferric (Fe(III)) dosing during aeration-rapid sand filtration to achieve < 1 mu g/L As (2) the influence of MnO4--Fe(III) dosing on preestablished removal patterns of As(III), Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH4+ in rapid sand filters and (3) the influence of MnO4--Fe(III) dosing on the settling and molecular-scale structural properties of the filter backwash solids. We report that MnO4--Fe(III) dosing is an effective technique to improve arsenite [As(III)] removal at groundwater treatment plants. At a typical aeration-rapid sand filtration facility in the Netherlands effluent As concentrations of < 1 mu g/L were achieved with 1.2 mg/L MnO4--and 1.8 mg/L Fe(III). The optimized combination of MnO4-and Fe(III) doses did not affect the removal efficiency of Fe(II), Mn(II) and NH4+ in rapid sand filters, however, the removal patterns of Fe(II) and Mn(II) in rapid sand filter were altered, as well as the settling behaviour of backwash solids. The characterization of backwash solids by Fe K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the changed settling velocity of backwash solids with MnO4-Fe(III) in place was not due to changes in the molecular-scale structure of Fe-precipitates that constitute the major portion of the backwash solids.

  • 2.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Wallström, J.
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, S-11123 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundberg, K.
    Ecoloop AB, Katarinavagen 7, S-11646 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Söderqvist, T.
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, S-11123 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hornberg, C.
    Environm Law & Dev SWE AB, Birger Jarlsgatan 2, S-11434 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Högstrom, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Strategic environmental assessment in Swedish municipal planning. Trends and challenges2018In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 73, p. 152-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than a decade after the implementation of the EU Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) into Swedish legislation, a comprehensive study has been conducted to analyze the development of SEA practice in municipal planning. The analysis was based on a nationwide mapping of SEA in Swedish municipal comprehensive plans and municipal sector plans, such as energy plans and waste plans, which were adopted in the period 2004-2014. The mapping was used for obtaining evidence of, and explanations for, the extent to which SEAs have been carried out and to enable an identification of the presence of alternatives and specified purposes of the plan. In this paper, the result of the analysis of the development of SEA practice is presented, which shows that municipal comprehensive plans had an SEA to an increasingly greater extent, up to on average 90% for the period 2010-2014. For waste plans and energy plans, corresponding figures for the same period were significantly lower. In addition, the result shows a decreasing trend between 2006 and 2014 regarding the proportion of SEAs that included more than one plan alternative. The use of a zero alternative, however, increased from 2006 to 2014. A regression analysis was conducted to identify determinants that explain the variation in the degree to which screening and SEAs were conducted. The findings of the study show that a systematic mapping of SEA practice provides empirical basis for the development of policy measures to enhance the use of SEAS in municipal planning. Furthermore, it is argued that strengthening the link between alternatives and the purposes of the plan may foster a more strategic thinking when identifying reasonable alternatives on how to promote sustainable development within the planning. Moreover, it is argued that mandatory SEA should be considered in municipal comprehensive and sector planning.

  • 3.
    Gustafsson, Matilda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nordin Von Platen, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    En jämförande kolonnstudie av två reaktiva dualfilters egenskaper som långvarig fosforfälla i enskilda avlopp - En jämförelse av dualfiltrena Polonite® -Sorbulite® och AOD-Hyttsand2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Eutrofieringen av Östersjön är omfattande och ses i dag som ett av områdets allvarligaste föroreningsproblem. Orsaken till detta är en förhöjd näringsbelastning av kväve och fosfor. Den ökade näringsbelastningen beror på att de naturliga flödena av dessa näringsämnen har rubbats, vilket är en direkt följd av urbaniseringen. Sveriges enskilda avlopp står för 16% av den totala fosforbelastningen till Östersjön. År 2006 skärptes de svenska riktvärdena för fosforbelastning från enskilda avloppsanläggningar. Nästan en tredjedel av dagens 625 000 enskilda avloppsanläggningar klarar inte dessa skärpta krav. Som ett led i detta har forskning och utveckling inom ämnesområdet bedrivits under de senaste 20 åren. Forskningen har resulterat i nya effektivare avloppsreningstekniker där så kallade reaktiva filtermaterial används som fosforfälla.

    Gemensamt för de reaktiva filtermaterial som har utvecklats är dess höga kalciumhalt och stora specifika fastläggningsytor, vilket vid höga pH-värden skapar förutsättning för en hög fosforfastläggningen. Den reaktiva filtermaterialstekniken möjliggör ett resurseffektivt användande av fosfor då recirkulation av grundämnet möjliggörs.

    Syftet med detta kandidatexamensarbete har varit att undersöka om livslängden för två olika reaktiva filtermaterial kan förlängas genom en dualfilterteknik. En teknik där fosforfällan består av två olika reaktiva filtermaterial med olika egenskaper. Hypotesen har varit att en dualfilterteknik kan minska kalciumutlakningen från filtret. De två dualfilter som har undersökts är Polonite®–Sorbulite® och Argon oxygen decarburisation–Hyttsand. Arbetet har utförts som en kolonnstudie. De viktigaste analyserna som har genomförts är alkalinitet och kalciumutlakning.

    Arbetes slutsatser listas nedan:

    o Det dualfilter som har visat bäst förutsättningar som långvarig fosforfälla i enskilda avloppsanläggningar är Polonite®–Sorbulite®.

    o Materialet Sorbulite® har visat sig kunna minska kalciumutlakningen, vilket bekräftar studiens hypotes. Arbetets resultat pekar på att Sorbulite® kan användas för att förlänga filterlivslängden för det reaktiva filtermaterialet Polonite® .

    o Materialet Hyttsand uppvisar ingen förmåga till att kunna samla upp utlakade kalciumfraktioner. Detta medför att Hyttsand ej är ett lämpligt material i ett dualfilter där syftet är att förlänga filtrets livslängd.

  • 4.
    Hansson, Anton
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Jämförelse av regleringsmönster i en reglerad och en oreglerad älv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hydro Power is one of the most important producer of electricity and to optimize the production hydropeaking is used. Hydropeaking means regulation of the discharge to produce the amount of electricity the market demands at the time. In this study the regulation pattern has been analyzed and compared in one observation station in a regulated river and one observation station in an unregulated river, in Finland. Flow data has been analyzed with regards to three different statistic parameters. One parameter that analyzes the regulation per month, one that analyzes the regulation per day and one that analyzes per hour. The result shows that the smaller the time interval is the bigger are the differences in the regulation pattern. In the month perspective the value of the parameter is almost the same, in the day perspective the values for the regulated river is approximative 10-20 times bigger than the unregulated. And in the hour perspective it is even bigger differences where the value in the regulated river is around 40-50 times bigger than for the unregulated. The reason to the higher values on the parameters in the regulated river comes from that the discharge here is regulated to optimize the production of electricity which makes the differences in the discharger higher within the day and between two hours.When the spring flood comes something interesting happens with the regulation pattern. The regulation pattern in the two rivers becomes more similar. In the unregulated river the value of the parameters increases meanwhile the values in the regulated river decreases. The reason the short time regulation decreases in the regulated river is probably because of the higher risk of flooding, due to limitations of the capacity to store water, which comes with higher discharges. The regulation pattern got some differences between the years which depends on the amount of rain and the levels in the storing magazines by the start of the year. When the results in this thesis are compared with the results of another report which analyzes the same parameters in Switzerland, the same pattern can be seen in general but also some differences which indicates on the local conditions impact on the pattern.

  • 5.
    López i Losada, Raül
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Analysing toxicity for biochemical-producing organisms2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Using macroalgae as bio-feedstock for the bio-based plastic industry is a developing process that possesses inherent comparative advantages with regard to its environmental impacts compared to using other bio-feedstock sources. Thus, research effort is considered necessary to improve its competitiveness and resolve the technical challenges that it is currently facing. Within this context, this thesis aims at improving existing knowledge on ecotoxicity impacts from metals found in macroalgae tissue to microbes used within bio-reactors for their fermentation.

    The basis for a novel impact pathway within LCA methodologies is provided according to a fate- exposure-effect approach. Namely: microbial biota within a bio-reactor is exposed to metal that is bioaccumulated by macroalgae tissue from background sea water, which derives into potential ecotoxicity effects. This pathway can be further studied to incorporate microbial ecotoxicity in bio- reactors within current LCA practices.

    Under this approach, two data sets have been analysed to evaluate levels of pollution of metals in macroalgae feedstocks against their potential ecotoxicological effects in biochemicals producing microbes: one concerning metal uptake by macroalgae, including measurements on algae tissue and background sea water; and a second one including metal ecotoxicity measurements on relevant microbial species used in biochemicals production processes. As a result of this analysis, it is concluded that there is basis for including microbial ecotoxicity from macroalgae feedstock as a relevant criterion within decision-making in the bio-based plastic industry. Moreover, input for the industry is obtained as direct recommendations and score tables that can be used under case-specific scenarios for macroalgae and microbial species selection.

    The conducted project should be regarded as a first iteration to the problem. Further work is required in order to refine the outcome of research and maximise input recommendations for the bio-based plastic industry.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-07-01 12:00
  • 6.
    Nordin von Platen, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Matilda
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Nature-based Solutions for Flood Risk Reduction, Contamination Control and Climate Change Adaption2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy precipitation events are expected to increase in the future, due to climate change. This predicted change will increase the risk of flooding, especially in urban areas. To mitigate these challenges and support a sustainable urban development, Nature-based solutions (NBS) can be used as a flood risk reduction measure. The NBS wetlands and constructed wetlands, composed of ponds, canals and ditches, are commonly used solutions which are multifunctional and primarily provides flood regulatory services, water quality improvements and increased biodiversity. To reach the full potential of NBS, the location and design is crucial. At present planning practise, a user friendly and time efficient tool to investigate suitable locations within a catchment is missing, where the concept of connectivity has arisen as a useful approach. In this study, the NBS concept and the potential of wetlands for flood risk mitigation have been investigated. In addition, the connectivity of two study case catchments has been analysed by using the Connectivity Index (IC index) by Cavalli et al. (2013). The aim has been to evaluate whether the IC index can be used to find suitable locations for NBS. Further, the study seeks to investigate how the IC index can be integrated into NBS planning practice in order to create useful information for the decisionmaking process. To validate the IC index result, a comparison has been performed with earlier flood events, two hydrological models, Multi criteria decision analysis and spatiotemporal soil parameters. From the obtained result and analysis, preliminary solutions have been proposed for two case studies in Sweden and Portugal. The result shows that IC index is promising as an, early stage, first assessment tool in NBS planning practice which can be used in order to allocate areas suitable for NBS. To find the most beneficial location and the site-specific design, a deeper investigation of the site-specific conditions is required. Moreover, a successful implementation is dependent on a close collaboration between different stakeholders and expertise. Finally, this study shows that realizing the potential of NBS wetlands is essential to create sustainable urban development and liveable and attractive cities.

  • 7.
    Runsten, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Är ett cirkulärt retursystem eller användning av förnyelsebara material att föredra?: Jämförande LCA av underslag för leveranser av gips2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the large quantities of waste in the construction industry, a circular return packaging system is evaluated as bearers used for gypsum deliveries. The master thesis is written together with the construction company JM AB with the goal of being able to support future strategies for the development of more sustainable packaging solutions. This has been done by a comparative life cycle analysis of the current linear system of wood chips bearers, which is compared with a theoretical circular system of plastic bearers used with a return system. The two different bearers with respective processes are compared, in order to evaluate the environmental impact and further evaluate the conditions when a return system is preferable. By creating two life cycle analyses of both systems in the SimaPro computer software and comparing them with the functional unit, 50 deliveries of 42 discs of gypsum are the two different ways of delivering gypsum compared. The result shows that two returns per plastic bearer are needed to ensure that the seven selected environmental impact categories are lower than using wood chips bearers. In the sensitivity analysis, different scenarios are tested, where one conclusion of the analysis is that the type of energy used for the manufacture of the bearers is very important for the result. The discussion addresses the problem that plastic is not a renewable material, and today's conditions on construction sites result in return packaging being handled as disposables.

  • 8.
    Vitmosse, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Increased Safety on Cycling Paths by Improving Road Maintenance: A Concept to Report Faults and Provide Grades on Cycling Paths2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Urbanisation is increasing and more sustainable transport modes are promoted, in both the sustainable development goals and the national goals. Sweden has developed a national cycling strategy, with the purpose to improve cycling infrastructure and make more people chose the bike. While cycling is good for both environment, reduced congestion and personal health, the traffic mode comes with high risk of accidents. Insufficient operation and maintenance is one of the main causes of single accidents involving cyclists.

    To improve the road quality on existing paths, this study has in collaboration with NCC, developed a concept for reporting issues on paths for cyclists directly to the road manager. The aim is to increase the efficiency of inspections on cycling paths and to cover more risk related aspects. A pilot area was chosen, due to variations in contracts for NCC’s operational areas in Sweden. The choice of pilot area was Borås, based on type of contract, local initiatives and sufficient information available.

    The methodology of this project consisted of a general literature review, followed with a deeper study of contracts and seminars in Borås. The seminars provided local insight from the NCC workers and cyclists familiar in the area. A grading system for the reports was obtained through a multi-criteria analysis in which criteria was combined with weights based on risk factor to demonstrate the urgency from more sides than just the contact. An analysis of the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats was made to evaluate the concept.

    The result is in the form of a reporting system where cyclists can register errands about problems on their cycling paths in a mobile application. An NCC administrator at the main local office will organise the reports into the relevant criterion and score it according to urgency. The errand is then graded based on the score combined with a weight for that criterion to represent the risk factor. Colour coded symbols will appear on a digital map, giving NCC a good overview of the cycling path that can help them prioritise and schedule maintenance more efficiently. It is expected that some of the reports will concern problems outside of NCC contract boarders, these will be handled separately in a Grey Zone. Either the errand will be forwarded to responsible road manager, or it will be used in action proposals to the contract holder.

    For this system to work, it is important that the users stay engaged. This is attained with a feedback mechanism allowing the user to follow the report throughout the process. It will be possible to receive notifications when the status of an errand is updated. During a seminar with local cyclists, personalised feedback was preferred. A suggestion to meet this request is given in the form of a gamification feature, where points and achievements illustrate the importance of the cyclist’s reports. To attract users, different incentives such as discounts or service might be necessary.

    A final recommendation from this project is to create a system with the intention to collaborate with local initiatives and stakeholders. The value of this concept lay in increased efficiency and quality of operation and maintenance of cycling path that will lead to a safer environment for the citizens. 

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