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  • 1.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Wallström, J.
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, S-11123 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundberg, K.
    Ecoloop AB, Katarinavagen 7, S-11646 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Söderqvist, T.
    Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, S-11123 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hornberg, C.
    Environm Law & Dev SWE AB, Birger Jarlsgatan 2, S-11434 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Högstrom, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Strategic environmental assessment in Swedish municipal planning. Trends and challenges2018In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 73, p. 152-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than a decade after the implementation of the EU Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) into Swedish legislation, a comprehensive study has been conducted to analyze the development of SEA practice in municipal planning. The analysis was based on a nationwide mapping of SEA in Swedish municipal comprehensive plans and municipal sector plans, such as energy plans and waste plans, which were adopted in the period 2004-2014. The mapping was used for obtaining evidence of, and explanations for, the extent to which SEAs have been carried out and to enable an identification of the presence of alternatives and specified purposes of the plan. In this paper, the result of the analysis of the development of SEA practice is presented, which shows that municipal comprehensive plans had an SEA to an increasingly greater extent, up to on average 90% for the period 2010-2014. For waste plans and energy plans, corresponding figures for the same period were significantly lower. In addition, the result shows a decreasing trend between 2006 and 2014 regarding the proportion of SEAs that included more than one plan alternative. The use of a zero alternative, however, increased from 2006 to 2014. A regression analysis was conducted to identify determinants that explain the variation in the degree to which screening and SEAs were conducted. The findings of the study show that a systematic mapping of SEA practice provides empirical basis for the development of policy measures to enhance the use of SEAS in municipal planning. Furthermore, it is argued that strengthening the link between alternatives and the purposes of the plan may foster a more strategic thinking when identifying reasonable alternatives on how to promote sustainable development within the planning. Moreover, it is argued that mandatory SEA should be considered in municipal comprehensive and sector planning.

  • 2.
    Balfors, Berit
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Wallström, J.
    Lundberg, K.
    Söderqvist, T.
    Hörnberg, C.
    Högström, J.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Strategic environmental assessment in Swedish municipal planning. Trends and challenges2018In: Environmental impact assessment review, ISSN 0195-9255, E-ISSN 1873-6432, Vol. 73, p. 152-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than a decade after the implementation of the EU Directive on Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) into Swedish legislation, a comprehensive study has been conducted to analyze the development of SEA practice in municipal planning. The analysis was based on a nationwide mapping of SEA in Swedish municipal comprehensive plans and municipal sector plans, such as energy plans and waste plans, which were adopted in the period 2004–2014. The mapping was used for obtaining evidence of, and explanations for, the extent to which SEAs have been carried out and to enable an identification of the presence of alternatives and specified purposes of the plan. In this paper, the result of the analysis of the development of SEA practice is presented, which shows that municipal comprehensive plans had an SEA to an increasingly greater extent, up to on average 90% for the period 2010–2014. For waste plans and energy plans, corresponding figures for the same period were significantly lower. In addition, the result shows a decreasing trend between 2006 and 2014 regarding the proportion of SEAs that included more than one plan alternative. The use of a zero alternative, however, increased from 2006 to 2014. A regression analysis was conducted to identify determinants that explain the variation in the degree to which screening and SEAs were conducted. The findings of the study show that a systematic mapping of SEA practice provides empirical basis for the development of policy measures to enhance the use of SEAs in municipal planning. Furthermore, it is argued that strengthening the link between alternatives and the purposes of the plan may foster a more strategic thinking when identifying reasonable alternatives on how to promote sustainable development within the planning. Moreover, it is argued that mandatory SEA should be considered in municipal comprehensive and sector planning. 

  • 3. Birgisdottir, H.
    et al.
    Moncaster, A.
    Wiberg, A. Houlihan
    Chae, C.
    Yokoyama, K.
    Balouktsi, M.
    Seo, S.
    Oka, T.
    Luetzkendorf, T.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    IEA ESC annex 57 'evaluation of embodied energy and CO2eq for building construction'2017In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 154, p. 72-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current regulations to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from buildings have focused on operational energy consumption. Thus legislation excludes measurement and reduction of the embodied energy and embodied GHG emissions over the building life cycle. Embodied impacts are a significant and growing proportion and it is increasingly recognised that the focus on reducing operational energy consumption needs to be accompanied by a parallel focus on reducing embodied impacts. Over the last six years the Annex 57 has 'addressed this issue, with researchers from 15 countries working together to develop a detailed understanding of the multiple calculation methods and the interpretation of their results. Based on an analysis of 80 case studies, Annex 57 showed various inconsistencies in current methodological approaches, which inhibit comparisons of results and difficult development of robust reduction strategies. Reinterpreting the studies through an understanding of the methodological differences enabled the cases to be used to demonstrate a number of important strategies for the reduction of embodied impacts. Annex 57 has also produced clear recommendations for uniform definitions and templates which improve the description of system boundaries, completeness of inventory and quality of data, and consequently the transparency of embodied impact assessments.

  • 4.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    GIS-baserade metoder för hållbar planering av vindkraft - Grön infrastruktur2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    GIS-metoder för hållbar planering av vindkraft2017Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research motivation

    Renewable energy has great importance in the work to counteract the global climate changes. The Swedish government has seta target that in 2020, 50% of the energy use shall come from renewable energy, and the government has also declared a longterm commitment for Sweden to be independent of fossil fuels. To reach these targets wind power is expected to play a greatpart, and approximately 50 TWh of new wind power is needed to meet this objective, compared to the current annual production of approximately 16 TWh. However, climate change is not the only issue at hand, and there is a risk of conflicts between meetingthe targets for renewable energy and other sustainability objectives, e.g. concerning ecosystem services, such as habitatsupporting biodiversity, recreation and cultural landscapes. Hence to steer towards a sustainable planning of wind power, targets and objectives as well as decision support has to be dealt with systematically, encompassing social, economic, technical and ecological perspectives.

    Objective

    The objective of the project is to develop GIS-based methods that can be used as planning support in sustainable planning of wind power, in cooperation with regional and municipal actors. The method will function as decision support, which will helpplanners and decision makers at local and regional level to systematically handle the different aspects related to wind power localisation.

    Methodology

    The project is performed in collaboration with the County Administrative Board of Västernorrland County, which is the study areafor the project. Initially, a literature study is performed to gain knowledge about earlier research in the field and identify importantfactors to include in the methodology. Workshops are held with the included actors, to gain further understanding of what information is relevant when planning for wind power, and to gain local knowledge about the study area; what issues are at hand,and what factors govern wind power planning in the particular area. During the workshops different scenarios related to theplanning process are also developed. The method will include the development of a number of GIS-models to be used in a multicriteria analysis that can be used for design and evaluation of the different planning scenarios.

    Preliminary results

    The literature study as well as the workshops reveals that the location of wind turbines often can have impact on, and render conflict between, different interests and objectives. Factors of high concern when planning for locating wind turbines in the County of Västernorrland are, besides wind speed and technical considerations; noise impact, visual impact, and impact on certain bird species, reindeer hearding and recreation. In order to handle these factors, multi-criteria decision analysis within a GIS environment can support planning in the face of complex problems, with capabilities to handle multiple and often conflicting objectives, and to find sustainable solutions to decision-making problems.

    Management implications

    The project will result in a General GIS-based Planning Support (GPS) methodology to integrate important sustainability issuesin wind power planning, which can be applied generally in future spatial planning. The project will contribute to a morepredictable planning process, where disparate sustainability targets will be handled in an integrated and systematic way, therebyincreasing the possibility of reaching the targets.

  • 7.
    Byström, Gustaf
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Wretling, Vincent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Johansson, Maya
    Stockholms Universitet.
    GIS-based methods for sustainable wind power planning2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Crépin, Anne-Sophie
    et al.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hennlock, Magnus
    Neij, Lena
    Nilsson, Måns
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Engström, Gustav
    Berg, Lars
    Turesson, Anders
    Möjligheter och begränsningar med samhällsekonomiska analyser.2018Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Ekener, Elisabeth
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Integrating sustainability in research.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Gunnarsson-Östling, Ulrika
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Low-carbon futures for a Swedish society beyond GDP growthManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes how different backcasting scenarios for developments beyond traditional GDP growth 2050,  in Sweden may fulfill a climate goal corresponding to keeping global warming to a maximum 1.5 degrees with 50% likelihood. This corresponds to  a 92% decrease of GHG emissions from Swedish consumption from today’s level. The four scenarios illustrate different strategies: 1) collaborative economy, 2) local self-sufficiency, 3) automation for quality of life and 4) circular economy in the welfare state. The aim is to further precise and quantify the scenario narratives with a focus on GHG emissions occurring as a result of Swedish consumption, both private and public. Preliminary results show that, as we assume that Sweden is fossil-free 2050, particular areas of attention are diets, air travel, emission intensities in other countries and the level of imports.. Potential implications for other environmental goals are discussed.

  • 11.
    Fauré, Eléonore
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Palm, Viveka
    SCB, Department for Regions and environment, Statistics Sweden.
    Persson, Linn
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Schmidt, Sarah
    NTNU, Program for Industrial Ecology, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Wood, Richard
    NTNU, Program for Industrial Ecology, Department of Energy and Process Engineering, Trondheim, Norway.
    Environmental pressure from Swedish consumption: - the largest contributing producer countries, products and servicesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to produce goods and services that are consumed in Sweden, natural resources are extracted and pollutants are emitted in many other countries. This paper presents an analysis of which products and services cause the largest environmental pressures in terms of resource use and emissions and in which countries or regions these pressures occur. The results have been calculated using a hybrid model developed in the PRINCE project combining the multi-regional input-output database Exiobase with data from the Swedish economic and environmental accounts. The following environmental pressures are analysed: Use of Land, Water and Material resources, Emissions of Greenhouse gases (GHG), Sulphur dioxides (SO2), Nitrogen oxides (NOx), and Particulate Matters (PM 2.5 and 10). The product groups include a range of goods and services bought for private or public consumption and investments. The results show that Sweden is a net importer of all embodied environmental pressures, except for land use and material use. The most important product groups across environmental pressures are construction, food products and direct emissions from households (except for sulphur dioxide emissions and material use for the latter). Other recurrent product groups across several indicators are wholesale and retail services, architecture and engineering, dwellings, motor vehicles and machinery and equipment. However, for the three natural resource pressures Use of Water, Land and Material resources, agricultural products are a relatively important product group along with products from forestry for the last two indicators. The environmental pressures occur to a large degree in Sweden but also some other countries stand out as particularly important. One significant country is China, which is among the top ten countries for all indicators. Other highly relevant countries or regions are Rest of Asia and Pacific, Russia, Denmark, Germany and Spain. This variation indicates the need to work on policies at various levels: national, EU, bilateral and international.

  • 12.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Nya styrmedel behövs för att minska plastens miljöpåverkan.2018In: Aktuell hållbarhetArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Carstedt, Göran
    Friman, Eva
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Mogren, Anna
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Robertsson, Barbro
    Rodhe, Håkan
    Sund, Per
    Svärd, Linn
    Evaluation of integration of sustainable development in higher education in Sweden.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Friman, Eva
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Robertsson, Barbro
    Rodhe, Håkan
    Sund, Per
    Carstedt, Göran
    Mogren, Anna
    Svärd, Linn
    Bedömargruppens yttrande: Universitets och högskolors arbete med att främja en hållbar utveckling. En tematisk utvärdering.2017Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Friman, Eva
    Lundberg, Sofia
    Palmer, Henrietta
    Robertsson, Barbro
    Rodhe, Håkan
    Sund, Per
    Carstedt, Göran
    Mogren, Anna
    Svärd, Linn
    Sätt fart på universitetens hållbarhetsarbete.2017In: CurieArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Persson, Kristina
    Wijkman, Anders
    Energiföretagens ökade utsläpp hotar klimatarbetet.2018In: Dagens samhälleArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Persson, Kristina
    Wijkman, Anders
    Förbränning av plast måste minska2018In: Dagens samhälleArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Francart, Nicolas
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Erlandsson, Martin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Building Materials.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Larsson, Mathias
    Florell, Josefin
    Requirements set by Swedish municipalities to promote construction with low climate change impact2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 208, p. 117-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how Swedish municipalities work to reduce the climate change impact of building construction. It focuses on current practices related to promoting the use of sustainable construction materials and on barriers to environmental requirements in construction, in particular environmental performance requirements based on LCA procedures. Municipalities were surveyed about the existence of municipal policies dealing with environmental issues in construction, the knowledge level about these issues, and the measures and requirements used to promote materials with low climate change impact. The survey was followed by semi-structured interviews about current practices and barriers to environmental requirements in construction. Results show that large municipalities are more likely to have dedicated policies and implement more measures than their smaller counterparts. However, willingness to implement future measures and knowledge of sustainable construction do not vary significantly with municipality population. Efforts are often limited to procurement, municipal construction projects and discussions with stakeholders. When requirements are set, they are almost always based on prescribing a technical solution (e.g. use of timber) rather than assessing environmental performance (e.g. calculating greenhouse gases emissions with a LCA tool). Measures that municipalities can take as public authorities are restricted by the law, which remains ambiguous as to the legality of environmental performance requirements. Legal issues, limited knowledge and resources appear to be the main barriers to environmental performance requirements in construction. A strategy is proposed to o​v​e​r​

  • 19.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Brazilian public protection regulations and the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is significant for sustaining ecosystems services and biodiversity of global importance. However, the expansion of forestry and agriculture to supply national and international markets often results in loss of ecosystem services and biodiversity. Public protection regulations play a crucial role in setting limits for agricultural expansion. This thesis aims at improving the understanding of the potential impacts of prevailing policies in the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with the native vegetation in Brazil. The Land Use Governance Assessment (LUGA) model was developed to simulate the implementation of existing public protection regulations, in particular, the Brazilian Forest Act.

    The results suggest that command and control regulations do not protect about 28 % of the above-ground carbon in Brazil. The regularisation process of undesignated land is expected to expand protection to an additional 18 % of the above-ground carbon stocks, leaving about 10 % of the carbon stocks unprotected. On the other hand, the preservation of viable populations of several threatened mammal species is highly dependent on an urgent expansion of protected areas in the Cerrado and Caatinga biomes. Furthermore, the results from this thesis indicate that offsetting legal deficit of native vegetation may have little or no additional effects on the protection of native vegetation. The potential loss of forest protection due to reduced legal reserve requirements in the Amazon could potentially range from 6.5 Mha to more than 15 Mha.

    There are critical gaps in the land use policies in Brazil that threaten the preservation of ecosystem services and biodiversity associated with native vegetation. Market-driven mechanisms can potentially contribute to filling this gap, protecting nature beyond the legal requirements. Yet, additional regulations may be necessary to improve the efficiency of the trading system of legal deficit of native vegetation among farmers, ensuring environmental and socio-economic functions of this system, and effectively balancing production with conservation.

  • 20.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Antonelli, A
    Berndes, Göran
    Englund, Oskar
    Faurby, Sören
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Persson, Martin
    Pinto, L F G
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Strassburg, B B N
    Biodiversity values of Brazilian native vegetation – How much is protected by the Forest Act?2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human-induced land use change (LUC) is the most important driver of biodiversity loss. In Brazil, this process is particularly concerning considering that here are the most extensive tracts of tropical forest and other rare habitat types which host unique biodiversity. The preservation of much of this area is highly dependent on the implementation of the Forest Act, the central legal framework regulating the conservation of native vegetation on private land in Brazil. Recent studies provide a modelling framework for assessing the impacts of the Forest Act on the protection of native vegetation and associated carbon stocks for the entire Brazilian territory. However, there is not sufficient knowledge on the efficiency of this legislation in protecting areas of high and unique biodiversity in Brazil.

    This study aims to apply the existing land use governance assessment (LUGA) model to quantify the extent to which the Forest Act protects biodiversity. For this purpose, we construct indicators at fine-scale levels to capture the multiple dimensions of biodiversity (species richness, genetic, and functional diversity) and how these are related to the native vegetation. Using state-of-the-art databases of species distribution data, GIS-based modeling frameworks are developed and adapted to identify values of native vegetation related to the preservation of biodiversity in general, and endangered species in particular, and ecological connectivity. The results are evaluated for Brazilian regions where the LUC pressure is recognized to be most significant. The final model output consists of geoexplicit indicators at a high resolution, which informs about the degree of biodiversity protection provided by the Forest Act. The information provided by this project can support decision-making related to the selection of areas of high importance for biodiversity protection at local and regional levels. Further, it can potentially contribute to efficient use of resources and improved effectiveness of incentive mechanisms in promoting conservation of unprotected native vegetation of high biodiversity value.

  • 21.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Englund, Oskar
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Who owns the Brazilian carbon?2018In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 24, p. 2129-2142Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazil is one of the major contributors to land-use change emissions, mostly driven by agricultural expansion for food, feed and bioenergy feedstock. Policies to avoid deforestation related to private commitments, economic incentives, and other support schemes are expected to improve the effectiveness of current command and control mechanisms increasingly. However, until recently, land tenure was unknown for much of the Brazilian territory, which has undermined the governance of native vegetation and challenged support and incentive mechanisms for avoiding deforestation. We assess the total extent of public governance mechanisms protecting aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks. We constructed a land tenure dataset for the entire nation and modeled the effects and uncertainties of major land-use acts on protecting AGC stocks. Roughly 70% of the AGC stock in Brazil is estimated to be under legal protection, and an additional 20% is expected to be protected after areas in the Amazon with currently undesignated land undergo a tenure regularization. About 30% of the AGC stock is on private land, of which roughly two-thirds are protected. The Cerrado, Amazon and Caatinga biomes hold about 40%, 30% and 20% of the unprotected AGC, respectively. Effective conservation of protected and unprotected carbon will depend on successful implementation of the Forest Act, and regularization of land tenure in the Amazon. Policy development that prioritizes unprotected AGC stocks is warranted to promote conservation of native vegetation beyond the legal requirements. However, different biomes and land tenure structures may require different policy settings considering local and regional specifics. Finally, the fate of current AGC stocks relies upon effective implementation of command and control mechanisms, considering that unprotected AGC in native vegetation on private land only accounts for 6.5% of the total AGC stock.

  • 22.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Englund, Oskar
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Guidotti, Vinicius
    Pinto, Luis F. G.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Legal protection over the Brazilian carbon stocks2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brazilian native vegetation stands as one of the largest global carbon storages.  Here is also where most of the emissions related to land use change take place,  mostly driven by agricultural expansion. Policies of incentives and support to  avoid deforestation are expected to play a significant role to improve the  effectiveness of the prevailing command and control regulation and expand the  protection of carbon stocks in the native vegetation. However, the limited  available resources require wise targeting policies that maximise the outcomes  regarding carbon protection. In this study, we conducted a quantitative  assessment of the effect of command and control regulations in the protection of  above-ground carbon (AGC) stocks employing a land use policy assessment (LUPA)  model. The model enabled the construction of a land tenure dataset of national  coverage and modelled the effects of the major pieces of land use legislation in  the protection of AGC stocks. The outcomes suggest that roughly 70% of the AGC  stock in Brazil is protected and additional 20% is expected to be protected  after the tenure regularisation process of undesignated land. Private territory  sustains about 30% of the AGC stocks, half within small or medium sized private  properties which represent 98% of the Brazilian landholders and the other half  in the 2% larger properties. Roughly 20% of the AGC in private land is under  command and control protection, and the remaining 10% is unprotected. We argued  that targeting policy may prioritise the unprotected AGC stocks; however,  different biomes may require different policy settings considering the  specificity of each biome.

  • 23.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Martin
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden ; Mid Sweden Univ, Dept Ecotechnol & Sustainable Bldg Engn, Englund GeoLab, Östersund, Sweden.
    Baretto, Alberto
    Univ Sao Paulo, Soil Sci Dept, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2018In: Nature Sustainability, Vol. 1, p. 665-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian Amazon rainforest is protected largely by command and control regulation of public and private land. The Brazilian Forest Act requires private landholders within the Amazon to set aside 80% of their land as legal reserves for nature protection, but this requirement can be reduced to 50% if more than 65% of a state’s territory is protected public land (for example, public conservation units and indigenous reserves). In the ongoing land designation process in Brazil, some Amazonian states may cross this 65% threshold. We assess the potential reduction in the legal reserve requirement from 80% to 50%, through spatially explicit modelling of scenarios concerning land tenure consolidation, employing up-to-date databases on land ownership. Depending on the outcome of land designation processes and political priorities, some 6.5–15.4 million hectares of private land previously protected as legal reserves may become available for legal deforestation. While protection of public land is crucial for safeguarding the Amazon, revisions of federal and state legislation may be needed to avoid the further extension of protected public land triggering increased legal deforestation on private lands. Zero-deforestation commitments and other initiatives may mitigate impacts in the absence of such revision.

  • 24.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Persson, Martin
    Englund, Oskar
    Barretto, Alberto
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Freitas, Flavio L M
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Berndes, Göran
    Persson, Martin
    Englund, Oskar
    Barretto, Alberto
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Potential increase of legal deforestation in Brazilian Amazon after Forest Act revision2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Klug, Israel
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers.
    Offsetting legal deficits of native vegetation among Brazilian landholders: Effects on nature protection and socioeconomic development2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 68, p. 189-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Brazilian native vegetation supports essential ecosystem services and biodiversity for the global society, whileland use competition may intensify around the increasing needs for food, fibre and bioenergy. The Brazilian Forest Actof 2012 amplified a market-based mechanism for offsetting native vegetation deficits in private farmlands. Thismechanism enables a large-scale trading system allowing landholders to offset their own deficits of native vegetationby purchasing certificates associated with a surplus of native vegetation from other landholders. This mechanism is analternative for the more expensive restoration of native vegetation on own land. The launching of the mechanism nowdepends on specific regulations at state level, which may include geographical restrictions for offsetting deficits. Theaim of this study is to evaluate the effects in nature protection and socio-economic development of different offsettingimplementation alternatives. Our findings suggest that in a business-as-usual scenario the offsetting mechanism mayhave little or no additional effects on protection of native vegetation, because most of the offsetting is likely to takeplace where native vegetation is already protected by prevailing legislations. We concluded that it is possible tomaximise environmental and socio-economic returns from the offsetting mechanism without undermining productiveland. This would be possible if regulations ensure additionality in nature protection while enabling a self-sustainingmechanism for income generation for small-scale family farmers in the poorest region of Brazil, protecting biodiversityand counteracting major trade-offs between ecosystem services.

  • 27. Gardumi, Francesco
    et al.
    Avgerinopoulos, Georgios
    Korkmaz, Pinar
    Pye, Steve
    Keppo, Ilkka
    Montenegro, Roland
    Fahl, Ulrich
    Pang, Xi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Howells, Mark
    Recipes to facilitate the low-carbon transition2018Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Goronovski, Andrei
    et al.
    University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Tkaczyk, Alan H.
    University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, Ostwaldi 1, 50411 Tartu, Estonia.
    Impact assessment of enhanced exposure from Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) within LCA2018In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 2824-2839Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impact of ionising radiation from enhanced exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) to humans and the environment is not currently accounted for sufficiently in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Here we present midpoint and endpoint characterisation factors resulting from the implementation of impact assessment models for human health and ecosystems for NORM exposure. These models build upon existing fate, exposure and effect models from the LCA and radiological literature. The newly developed models are applied to a theoretical study of the utilisation of bauxite residue, a by-product of alumina processing enriched in natural radionuclides, in building materials. The ecosystem models have significant sensitivity to uncertainties surrounding the differential environmental fate of parent and daughter radionuclides that are produced as a part of decay chains, and to assumptions regarding long term releases from landfill sites. However, conservative results for environmental exposure suggest that in addition to landfill of materials, power consumption (burning coal and mining uranium) is a potentially significant source of radiological impact to the environment. From a human perspective, exposure to NORM in the use phase of building materials is the dominant source of impact, with environmental releases of nuclides playing a comparatively minor role. At an endpoint level, the impact of NORM exposure is highly significant in comparison to other impact categories in the area of protection of human health. The dose increase is of an order of magnitude comparable to lifestyle factors. The results highlight the importance within LCA of having sufficient impact assessment models to capture all potential impacts, such that issues of burden shifting between impact measures can be captured, interpreted and resolved in the optimisation of product systems.

    The full text will be freely available from 2019-11-17 08:43
  • 29.
    Hagbert, Pernilla
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture. KTH, Superseded Departments (pre-2005), Infrastructure. KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Actors in transition: shifting roles in Swedish sustainable housing development2019In: Journal of Housing and the Built Environment, ISSN 1566-4910, E-ISSN 1573-7772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In planning for a future that fulfils sustainability goals, there is a need to explore how roles taken in socio-ecological transitions are perceived among different types of actors. Empirical insights from interviews with diverse actors involved in Swedish housing development are presented, addressing the roles, conflicting logics and power relations between different sectoral categories of actors and at different organizational levels. Key aspects that emerge relate to the shift from state to market in contemporary Swedish housing development, where private companies emphasize their role in shaping societal development as inherent to working with sustainability. Conflicting logics can be found between short-term economic interests and long-term planning and policy, as well as intra-organizational differences in competency and leadership. Conclusions point to that the role of third sector or community actors in pushing agendas and norms to bring about transitions could be acknowledged further. Yet there is a need to examine the power relations currently reproduced, and how these could be challenged in future housing development. This includes critically assessing the potential for new types of actors and cross-sectoral collaborations, but also instigating more fundamental discussions of the kind of society strived for, and the radical transitions needed.

  • 30.
    Hansson, Julia
    et al.
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Climate & Sustainable Cities, Energy, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Mech & Maritime Sci, Maritime Environm Sci, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Berndes, Goran
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Englund, Oskar
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Space Earth & Environm, Phys Resource Theory, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Mazzaro de Freitas, Flavio Luiz
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Sparovek, Gerd
    Univ Sao Paulo, Dept Soil Sci, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil..
    How is biodiversity protection influencing the potential for bioenergy feedstock production on grasslands?2019In: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 517-538Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable feedstock supply is a critical issue for the bioenergy sector. One concern is that feedstock production will impact biodiversity. We analyze how this concern is addressed in assessments of biomass supply potentials and in selected governance systems in the EU and Brazil, including the EU Renewable Energy Directive (RED), the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), and the Brazilian Forest Act. The analysis focuses on grasslands and includes estimates of the amount of grassland area (and corresponding biomass production volume) that would be excluded from cultivation in specific biodiversity protection scenarios. The reviewed assessments used a variety of approaches to identify and exclude biodiverse grasslands as unavailable for bioenergy. Because exclusion was integrated with other nature protection considerations, quantification of excluded grassland areas was often not possible. The RED complements and strengthens the CAP in terms of biodiversity protection. Following the RED, an estimated 39%-48% (about 9-11 Mha) and 15%-54% (about 10-38 Mha) of natural and non-natural grassland, respectively, may be considered highly biodiverse in EU-28. The estimated biomass production potential on these areas corresponds to some 1-3 and 1.5-10 EJ/year for natural and non-natural grassland, respectively (depending on area availability and management intensity). However, the RED lacks clear definitions and guidance, creating uncertainty about its influence on grassland availability for bioenergy feedstock production. For Brazil, an estimated 16%-77% (about 16-76 Mha) and 1%-32% (about 7-24 Mha) of natural and non-natural grassland, respectively, may be considered highly biodiverse. In Brazil, ecological-economic zoning was found potentially important for grassland protection. Further clarification of grassland definitions and delineation in regulations will facilitate a better understanding of the prospects for bioenergy feedstock production on grasslands, and the impacts of bioenergy deployment on biodiversity.

  • 31.
    Hermansson, Hélène
    et al.
    KTH.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Schneider, André
    Sustainable development in higher education - what sustainability skills do industry need.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Högstrom, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability and Environmental Engineering.
    Balfors, Bent
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management. Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, S-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Hammer, Monica
    Sodertorn Univ, Sch Nat Sci Technol & Environm Studies, S-14189 Huddinge, Sweden..
    The role of small-scale planning projects in urban development: A case study in the metropolitan Stockholm region, Sweden2019In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 84, p. 294-304Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As urban areas are developing and becoming increasingly important for dealing with sustainability goals and challenges, it is of the essence not to overlook the impacts created by the local, small-scale processes taking place across metropolitan regions. Based on a case study conducted in the expansive Stockholm region, this study explores the challenges associated with linking small-scale development to long-term overall strategy and development in municipal spatial planning. More specifically, it explores planning practitioners' experiences of how local planning processes are organized to deal with established cross-cutting sustainability goals and the conditions for promoting sustainability in small-scale development projects. The results show that municipal planners face several organizational, procedural, and knowledge-related challenges that also influence the interplay between public and private actors in the process. To promote suStainable trajectories at the local level, it is necessary to devote resources and build capacity to further develop the relationship and interdependency between the processes of translation and formalization, which constitute an important link between the project-specific planning process and the overall strategy and development.

  • 33.
    Högström, Johan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Towards Sustainable Urban Development in Expansive Urban Regions: Conditions and Challenges for Municipal Spatial Planning Practice2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From the local to the global level, there is a growing insight that human actions are having a profound and wide-reaching impact on natural and social systems. As a consequence, there is a need for sustainable development and planners are now challenged to integrate social, ecological and economic aspects in utilized planning process that span from the regional to the local. Thus, to put sustainability into practice requires a multi-level approach that takes into consideration the actions and the development in different countries, societies, cities and communities. In other words, sustainability is dependent on the performance and outcomes of multi-level systems of governance (including planning systems) across different contexts. Based on two case studies in the expansive Stockholm region, this thesis aims to explore the conditions for spatial planning to support a shift towards sustainable urban development. More specifically, it aims to provide an in-depth understanding of the conditions for spatial planning practice to promote sustainability in a context of rapid urban expansion and to analyze the management and utilization of available statutory planning instruments as a means to foster an effective interplay in planning practice. The results show that a shift towards sustainable urban development requires that planning practices are allowed to engage in learning processes with the aim to emancipate an effective interplay throughout systems of governance. In particular, it is important that planning processes are able to (i) integrate knowledge from ‘strategic’ levels with local project-specific conditions that are revealed throughout the detailed development planning process and (ii) make use of this synthesized body of knowledge to inform decision-making. The interplay in planning practice is an important mechanism to link ‘direction’ and ‘action’ in planning practice.

  • 34.
    Högström, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University.
    Planning for sustainability in expansive metropolitan regions: exploring practices and planners’ expectations in Stockholm, Sweden2017In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, local and regional planning practices are faced with the challenge of managing rapid growth in expansive urban regions. However, spatial planning should also contribute to the fulfilment of formalized sustainability objectives and support sustainable development. This includes addressing cross-cutting sustainability issues that transcend established administrative and territorial boundaries. Thus, the management of sustainability issues requires attention from actors at different levels, and challenges how contemporary planning practices plan for development. Based in the expansive Stockholm region, this study explores the cross-level interaction in spatial planning and decision-making and planning practitioners' experiences and apprehensions of contemporary municipal planning practices with a focus on statutory plans to achieve sustainability targets and objectives. The results show that municipal planning organizations are under pressure because of rapid urban expansion. It is concluded that the role, format and content of statutory as well as informal planning instruments are decisive for the cross-level interaction between planning levels. Moreover, planning instruments find new trajectories resulting in mismatches in expectations from planners at adjacent planning levels. This influences the interplay and preconditions for achieving national and regional sustainability targets and objectives.

  • 35.
    Högström, Johan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hammer, Monica
    Södertörn University.
    PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY IN SMALL-SCALE URBAN DEVELOPMENT: EXPLORING CONDITIONS FOR LOCAL PLANNING PRACTICE IN STOCKHOLM, SWEDENManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Computer vision for LCA foreground modelling – an initial pipeline and proof of concept software, lcopt-cvManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The majority of LCA studies begin with the drawing of a process flow diagram, which then needs to be translated manually into an LCA model. This study presents an initial image processing pipeline, implemented in an open source software package, called lcopt-cv, which can be used to identify the boxes and links in a photograph of a hand-drawn process flow diagram and automatically create an LCA foreground model.

    Methods

    The computer vision pipeline consists of a total of fifteen steps, beginning with loading the image file and conversion to greyscale. The background is equalised, then the foreground of the image is extracted from the background using thresholding. The lines are then dilated and closed to account for drawing errors. Contours in the image are detected and simplified, and rectangles (contours with four corners) are identified from the simplified contours as ‘boxes’. Links between these boxes are identified using a flood-filling technique. Heuristic processing, based on knowledge of common practice in drawing of process flow diagrams is then performed to more accurately identify the typology of the identified boxes and the direction of the links between them.

    Results and Discussion

    The performance of the image processing pipeline was tested on four different flow charts of increasing difficulty: A simple flow chart drawn in MS PowerPoint and saved as an image, followed by three photographs of hand-drawn flow charts. These consisted of a simple flow chart, a complex flow chart and a deliberately difficult example with merged lines. A set of default parameters for the pipeline was developed through trial and error. With minor tweaks to the default parameters, possible through the user interface of lcopt-cv, all of the flow charts were capable of being correctly processed and turned into LCA models. These models were successfully exported to further open source LCA software packages (lcopt and Brightway) to be analysed.

    Conclusions

    This study demonstrates that it is possible to generate a fully functional LCA model from a picture of a flow chart. This has potentially important implications not only for LCA practitioners as a whole, but in particular for the teaching of LCA. Skipping the steep learning curve required by most LCA software packages allows teachers to focus on important LCA concepts, while participants maintain the benefits of experiential learning by doing a ‘real’ LCA.

  • 37.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Environmental Considerations in the Zero-waste Valorisation of Bauxite Residue: A Life Cycle Perspective2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bauxite residue, also known as red mud, is produced in large quantities as a result of alumina refining (the first stage in aluminium production), and is one of the world’s most abundant and important industrial wastes. As demand for aluminium continues to increase and space to store this residue diminishes, the potential to utilise bauxite residue as a secondary resource is increasingly being considered by the alumina industry. Bauxite residue can be used as a source of iron, aluminium, titanium oxide, scandium and rare earth oxides, or utilised for its bulk properties to create cement clinkers or inorganic polymers. Achieving any of these uses however requires a series of complex valorisation processes, which in turn require inputs of energy and materials. Some bauxite residues also contain trace amounts of naturally occurring radionuclides.

    The EU Horizon 2020 MSCA-ETN REDMUD project was set up to investigate the valorisation of bauxite residue in an integrated manner. The ultimate aim of the REDMUD project is to develop environmentally-friendly, zero-waste, integrated processes for extracting valuable materials from bauxite residue and/or utilising it at high volume. This thesis presents the environmental perspective on this aim, taking a life cycle view; that is, taking into account the upstream and downstream impacts, in addition to the direct impacts, which may result from diverting bauxite residue from landfill to the proposed valorisation processes. This involves using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approaches to understand the environmental balance between the impact avoided through landfill diversion and the substitution of conventional materials, and the impacts incurred by the use of materials and energy in the valorisation processes themselves. Importantly, the potential ionising radiation impact from naturally occurring radionuclides is also considered from a life cycle perspective for the first time.

    A new life cycle impact assessment method for assessing the impacts of naturally occurring radionuclides was developed. In addition, two pieces of research software, designed to overcome the current shortcomings in LCA software with respect to streamlined and prospective LCA studies of emerging technologies are presented as part of this thesis.

    The potential hotspots of environmental impact in a single step valorisation process, the production of high bauxite residue content inorganic polymers, were identified. The results identify the high temperature processing of bauxite residue, in order to transform it into a reactive precursor capable of forming solid inorganic polymers, as a hotspot of environmental impact across a range of environmental impact measures. The production of alkaline activating solutions (the other reagent in the polymerisation reaction) also represented a hotspot of environmental impact. These hotspots were used to identify possible future research directions for this process, which have the potential to reduce the environmental impact of this valorisation process.

    Finally it was shown that even in the absence of a detailed and quantified system description, qualitative approaches based on life cycle thinking can be usefully applied to identify important aspects on both sides of the environmental balance between the impacts avoided and the impacts incurred in waste valorisation. Chemical reaction products, chemical synthesis, thermal and mechanical energy are highlighted as potential sources of environmental impact. A case study, looking at the combined extraction of iron and production of inorganic polymers from bauxite residue was used to demonstrate the validity of these qualitative approaches. This study also demonstrated that combining the extraction of iron and inorganic polymers is vital in order to yield a net environmental benefit in terms of climate change.

    This thesis provides an initial step on the road towards the environmentally sustainable valorisation of bauxite residue, as well as the analytical tools and additional impact assessment measures required to ensure that this journey can be continued, both within the REDMUD project and beyond.

  • 38.
    Joyce, Peter James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Identifying hotspots of environmental impact in the development of novel inorganic polymer paving blocks from bauxite residueIn: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    High bauxite residue content inorganic polymer paving blocks have the potential not only to provide a solution to the ongoing waste management issues faced by the alumina sector, but to simultaneously provide low environmental impact building materials to the construction sector. In order to realise the potential of this emerging technology, it is important to understand where the hotspots of environmental impact are likely to occur, and identify routes to reduce this impact, at an early stage of development. In this study we use anticipatory Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to identify hotspots of environmental impact in the production of paving blocks made from inorganic polymers derived from bauxite residue. This technology has only been demonstrated at laboratory scale; however, production was modelled at industrial scale. The bauxite residue is fired in a rotary kiln in the presence of a carbon and silica source, in order to create a reactive precursor. When mixed with an alkali the precursor forms a solid block. Our results identify the firing process as the major hotspot of environmental impact, primarily due to the combustion of fossil fuels in the rotary kiln. Steps to reduce the impact of the firing step or to reduce the amount of fired precursor used in the final paving block are suggested as routes for future impact reduction. Optimisation of the environmental aspects of these building materials at an early stage in their development could lead to a promising future for high-volume bauxite residue valorisation at low environmental cost.

    The full text will be freely available from 2020-07-10 15:01
  • 39.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Björklund, Anna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Using Life Cycle Thinking to assess the sustainability benefits of complex valorization pathways for Bauxite Residue: the case of the MSCA-ETN REDMUD ProjectManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bauxite residue, the main waste product of alumina production, is a potentially valuable secondary resource. The MSCA-ETN REDMUD project aims to develop environmentally friendly technologies to realize this value, by extracting valuable materials (aluminium, iron, titanium, scandium, rare earth elements) or utilizing it in construction applications. Simply utilizing a waste product as an input is not however sufficient to claim that a process is environmentally friendly; the processes developed must be demonstrably better for the environment, from a life cycle perspective, than business as usual. The earlier in the research and development process that environmental information can be taken into account, the more impact it can have on decision making. In this study we demonstrate that Life Cycle Thinking approaches can provide actionable environmental information at an early stage in the research process, and that in doing so it can help steer early stage technology development towards overall improved industry environmental performance. Knowledge of the potential environmental benefit from displacing different materials can help identify primary or additional targets, for example the use of metal extraction residues for construction materials. A high level ‘red flags’ assessment of the relative environmental impact of inputs to valorization processes and the products they displace can be used to identify problematic inputs and processes in the absence of quantitative details. Finally, once preliminary quantitative data are available for a process, streamlined Life Cycle Assessment can be used to calculate the environmental balance of a process, and identify specific hotspots of environmental impact.

  • 40.
    Joyce, Peter James
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Wood, Richard
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Energy & Proc Engn, N-7491 Trondheim, Norway..
    A multi-impact analysis of changing ICT consumption patterns for Sweden and the EU: Indirect rebound effects and evidence of decoupling2019In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 211, p. 1154-1161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is one of the major areas of growth in consumption seen over the last two decades. The falling prices of ICT and increasing energy efficiency of ICT may lead to reduced spending on ICT and electricity in the future. However, lower spending in one area can trigger higher spending elsewhere, leading to 'rebound effects' which can reduce or even cancel out the environmental benefits associated with lower consumption of a given product or service, and reducing the efficacy of environmental policy. In this study we use Multi-Regional Input Output analysis to investigate trends in the consumption of, and environmental and social impacts associated with la products in Sweden and the EU. We find that ICT spending is linked to prosperity, with a clear fall as a result of the 2008 financial crisis, but a recovery since. There is some evidence that the environmental impact associated with ICE has begun to decouple from consumption in Sweden, but not at an EU level. Environmental rebound effects associated with reduced ICT consumption are strong close to, and in most cases far above 100% (so called backfire effects). This backfire effect is strongest for energy use and total material footprint, which are both close to 200% in Sweden. This means that an increased spending on ICE products and services while keeping the overall consumption level constant, would decrease environmental impacts. Environmental rebound effects are much lower for reduced energy spending (as low as 2 percent), particularly at an EU level. Rebound effects in social indicators are assessed for the first time for 10' products. We find that value added in the EU is relatively insensitive to changes in spending patterns related to ICT and energy (rebound effects similar to 100%), however rebound effects in employment are seen, particularly resulting from decreased energy spending. At an EU level, reallocation of spending resulting from lower energy consumption results in a net increase in employment, while in Sweden the reverse is true. We conclude that policies focused on reducing energy spending are likely to have a greater overall environmental effect than measures which result in reduced consumer spending on ICT. However, in light of the conflicting social rebound effects at an EU and Swedish level, the importance of understanding the broader consequences of policy decision across a broad range of measures in advance of their implementation is once again highlighted.

  • 41.
    Karlsson, Caroline
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kalantari, Zahra
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Olofsson, Bo
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Natural hazard susceptibility assessment for road planning using spatial multi-criteria analysis2017In: Environmental Management, ISSN 0364-152X, E-ISSN 1432-1009, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 823-851Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inadequate infrastructural networks can be detrimental to society if transport between locations becomes hindered or delayed, especially due to natural hazards which are difficult to control. Thus determining natural hazard susceptible areas and incorporating them in the initial planning process, may reduce infrastructural damages in the long run. The objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of expert judgements for assessing natural hazard susceptibility through a spatial multi-criteria analysis (SMCA) approach using hydrological, geological and land use factors. To utilize SMCA for decision support, an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) was adopted where expert judgements were evaluated individually and in an aggregated manner. The estimates of susceptible areas were then compared with the methods weighted linear combination (WLC) using equal weights and factor interaction method (FIM). Results showed that inundation received the highest susceptibility. Using expert judgement showed to perform almost the same as Equal weighting where the difference in susceptibility between the two for inundation was around 4%. The results also showed that downscaling could negatively affect the susceptibility assessment and be highly misleading. Susceptibility assessment through SMCA is useful for decision support in early road planning despite its limitation to the selection and use of decision rules and criteria. A natural hazard SMCA could be used to indicate areas where more investigations need to be undertaken from a natural hazard point of view, and to identify areas thought to have higher susceptibility along existing roads where mitigation measures could be targeted after in-situ investigations.

  • 42.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Bengtsson, Stefan
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hörstedt, Fredrik
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    EU:s utsläppshandel otillräckligt för flyget.2018In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Bengtsson, Stefan
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Hörstedt, Fredrik
    Höjer, Mattias
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Hyfs och kunskap krävs i debatten om flyg och klimat.2018In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Karlsson, Sigbritt
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    KTH måste göra mer för klimatomställningen.2018In: Dagens NyheterArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Kharazmi, Parastou
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Berglund, Daniel
    KTH.
    Miliutenko, Sofiia
    KTH.
    Björk, Folke
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering.
    Malmqvist, Tove
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Comparative Life-Cycle Assessment for Renovation Methods of Waste-Water Sewerage Systems in Apartment Buildings – Comprehensive Data used in SimaPro for Model and Analyse LCA2018Data set
  • 46.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Paving the way for green qualities -Role of Environmental Assessment2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Implementing urban development projects in planning practice while simultaneously providing sufficient green spaces has proven to be challenging. As a result, there is a growing need for practical approaches and tools for the integration of urban green qualities in the on-going densification of cities. Environmental assessment, as a proactive decision aiding tool, can hold an important role in integrating green qualities in urban development plans and projects. However, in recent years environmental assessment has only added moderate value to planning issues regarding green space. Therefore, this thesis was designed to contribute to the knowledge and understanding on the role environmental assessment can have in the integration of green qualities in future urban development plans and projects in efforts to aid practitioners. This aim was achieved through examination of existing urban green space planning practice in the Stockholm region (Paper I) and the practice of environmental assessment in a selection of European countries in relation to the following factors identified to be important for practice: timing, quality control, alternatives, monitoring and public participation (Paper II). The findings from both studies were then analysed to identify possibilities of green space planning within the framework of these factors. A qualitative research was employed for this study including: semi-structured interviews with municipal planners in the Stockholm region and environmental assessment experts for the European Commission, literature review, document analysis and case study analysis. The case studies analyzed in Paper I were located in municipalities of Haninge and Huddinge, suburban areas located to the south of Stockholm. In Paper II, the experts interviewed were environmental assessment experts from the European Commission from: Austria, Denmark, Finland, Greece, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Slovenia. Through analysis of the results from both studies, the potential role of environmental assessment in integrating green qualities in urban development plans and projects are explored and discussed in relation to the factors. The potential of environmental assessment to enhance public participation and dialogues amongst actors, or bring forth green space issues within alternatives are a few of the roles discussed. Furthermore, a selection of pathways is suggested for the integration of green qualities in future urban development through the application of environmental assessment. For example, the implementation of developer dialogues in the environmental assessment process and the development of knowledge exchange platforms for sharing experiences in relation to green space planning and environmental assessment.

  • 47.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, B.
    Hörnberg, C.
    Uttam, K.
    Bharadwaj, S.
    SEA practice in a selection of European Countries-Lessons and PathwaysManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Khoshkar, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Balfors, B.
    Wärnbäck, A.
    Planning for green qualities in the densification of suburban Stockholm-opportunities and challengesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 49. Kraxner, Florian
    et al.
    Lundvall, Anders
    Hörnell-Willebrand, Maria
    Haraldsson, Hördur V
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Mörtberg, Ulla
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Pang, Xi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Eriksson, Ljusk Ola
    Lämås, Tomas
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Schepaschenko, Dimitry
    Leduc, Sylvain
    Yowargana, Ping
    Patrizio, Piera
    Mesfun, Sennai
    Pietsch, Stephan A
    Franklin, Oskar
    Krasovskii, Andrey
    Khabarov, Nikolay
    Balkovic, Juraj
    Nilsson, Sten B
    Planning the future forests: managing for wildlife in a climate constrained landscape2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017, p. 655-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multipurpose functionality is a paradigm when it comes to forest management. This includes sustainability, resilience, stand stability, wildlife management, recreation, clean water and air, or healthy soils - to name a few. The world is aiming at a maximum global warming of 2-deg by 2100, but cumulative emissions are still rising. Higher temperatures are associated with higher risks of extreme events such as storm, flood, droughts, pests and fires etc. - and at the same time, forest systems are key for any mitigation activity to avoid such dangerous climate change. But how will a managed forest look like in the future? How can we understand the underlying dynamics and make our forests fit for the increased need for carbon storage, biomass for energy and sustainable wood and non-wood forest products like game, while maintaining biodiversity, recreational and protected areas. Moreover, we need to address all challenges on limited land and establish action from policy development allthe way to their implementation within a short time frame. Based on Sweden's forests, traditionally considered a role model for successfully bridging a multitude of demands, we present a modeling approach that should serve as a planning tool for enhancing forests' risk resilience and capacity of integrating diverse demands and different ecosystem-services. Guided by the expertise of Sweden's Environmental Protection Agency, national forest and habitat shift models from SLU and KTH will be linked with global land use models and engineering tools from IIASA. Hereby, special emphasis will be put on ecosystem services from wildlife, different scenarios of forest intensification and the optimization of biomass for bioenergy production. First estimates show that spatially explicit modeling can substantially support decision making by optimizing multipurpose use of both managed and protected areas and steering habitat shift for maintaining biodiversity and improving wildlife (game)management.

  • 50.
    Larsdotter, Karin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Sustainability Assessment and Management.
    Creating change with seed funding.2018Conference paper (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 78
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