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• 1.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
Styrsystem för solcellsladdade batterier2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

The use of solar cells is continuously increasing in Sweden and the powergenerated by the solar cells is usually stored in lead acid batteries. These batterieshave a bad impact on the environment as much energy and environmentallyhazardous materials like lead and sulfuric acid are required to manufacture thesebatteries. Östersjökompaniet AB and many of its customers realize the importanceof sustainable thinking and were interested in knowing if it was possible tomaximize the lifetime of these batteries. During the course of the work, differentmethods of battery charging and discharging were analyzed that could affect thebatteries lifetime and how to take care of them to optimize them. A chargecontroller was used to optimize the charge of the battery. To calculate theremaining state of charge in the battery, the Extended voltmeter method was used.A prototype that was able to charge the batteries optimally, warn when the batterycapacity became too low, and a user-friendly application for battery monitoring wasdesigned. The calculated lifetime of a battery is not an exact science. According tostudies the lifetime of a battery can be doubled if it is c

KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
Big Data & Wearable Sensors Ensuring Safety and Health @Work2017In: GLOBAL HEALTH 2017, The Sixth International Conference on Global Health Challenges, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)

—Work-related injuries and disorders constitute a major burden and cost for employers, society in general and workers in particular. We@Work is a project that aims to develop an integrated solution for promoting and supporting a safe and healthy working life by combining wearable technologies, Big Data analytics, ergonomics, and information and communication technologies. The We@Work solution aims to support the worker and employer to ensure a healthy working life through pervasive monitoring for early warnings, prompt detection of capacity-loss and accurate risk assessments at workplace as well as self-management of a healthy working life. A multiservice platform will allow unobtrusive data collection at workplaces. Big Data analytics will provide real-time information useful to prevent work injuries and support healthy working life

• 3.
Italy.
Italy. Spain. Italy. Italy. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics. Kenya. Uganda. Estonia. Estonia. Estonia.
Towards open source medical devices current situation, inspiring advances and challenges2018In: BIODEVICES 2018 - 11th International Conference on Biomedical Electronics and Devices, Proceedings; Part of 11th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, BIOSTEC 2018, SciTePress, 2018, p. 141-149Conference paper (Refereed)

Open Source Medical Devices may be part of the solution towards the democratization of medical technologies pursuing Universal Health Coverage as part of the Sustainable Development Goals for United Nations. Recent technological advances, especially in information and communication technologies, combined with innovative collaborative design methodologies and manufacturing techniques allow for the mass-personalization of biodevices and help to optimize the related development times and costs, while keeping safety in the foreground through the whole life cycle of medical products. These advantages can be further promoted by adequately fostering collaboration, communication, high value information exchange, and sustainable partnerships and by extending the employment of open source strategies. To this end, within the UBORA project, we are developing a framework for training the biomedical engineers of the future in open-source collaborative design strategies and for supporting the sharing of information and the assessment of safety and efficacy in novel biodevices. An essential part of this open-source collaborative framework is the UBORA e-infrastructure, which is presented in this study, together with some initial success cases. Main future challenges, connected with regulatory harmonization, with educational issues and with accessible and open design and manufacturing resources, among others, are also presented and discussed.

• 4.
Univ Pisa, Dept Ingn Informaz, Bioengn, Pisa, Italy..
Univ Pisa, Dept Ingn Informaz, Bioengn, Pisa, Italy.. UPM, ETSII, Dept Mech Engn, Madrid, Spain.. Univ Pisa, Res Ctr E Piaggio, Pisa, Italy.;Kenyatta Univ, Nairobi, Kenya.. Uganda Ind Res Inst, Instrumentat Div, Kampala, Uganda.. Univ Pisa, Pisa, Italy.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics. UPM, ETSII, Dept Mech Engn, Madrid, Spain.. UPM, ETSII, Dept Mech Engn, Madrid, Spain.. Tartu Ulikool, Inst Technol, Tartu, Estonia..
Biomedical Engineering Project Based Learning: Euro-African Design School Focused on Medical Devices2018In: International Journal of Engineering ,Science and Innovative Technology, ISSN 0949-149X, E-ISSN 2277-3754, Vol. 34, no 5, p. 1709-1722Article in journal (Refereed)

Biomedical engineering (BME) has the potential of transforming medical care towards universal healthcare by means of the democratization of medical technology. To this end, innovative holistic approaches and multidisciplinary teams, built upon the gathering of international talent, should be encouraged within the medical industry. However, these transformations can only be accomplished if BME education also continuously evolves and focuses on the internationalization of students, the promotion of collaborative design strategies and the orientation towards context relevant medical needs. In this study we describe an international teaching-learning experience, the "UBORA (Swahili for 'excellence') Design School". During an intensive week of training and collaboration 39 engineering students lived through the complete development process for creating innovative open-source medical devices following the CDIO ("conceivedesign-implement-operate") approach and using the UBORA e-infrastructure as a co-design platform. Our post-school survey and analyses showed that this integral teaching-learning experience helped to promote professional skills and could nurture the future generation of biomedical engineers, who could transform healthcare technology through collaborative design oriented to open source medical devices.

• 5.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Test and Evaluation of a Novel Passive Tool Used For Blood Dilution in Hematology Analyzers2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Executive Summary

The Complete Blood Count (CBC) is considered one of the most commonly performed screening tests in medical diagnostics. The CBC is performed using a hematological analyzer, which counts the numbers and types of different cells within the blood. However, due to the high concentration of cells in the blood samples to be counted, the dilution process is considered an essential factor for obtaining accurate counting results. Below is an investigation for an invention of a unique method and device for blood sample dilution in hematology analyzers. As mentioned, before starting an analysis a hematology cell counter device must dilute a precise defined volume of a whole blood sample with a diluent reagent (in this study 20ml of a blood sample is diluted with 4,5ml of diluent reagent). This dilution process must be accurate and repeatable with a high precision to produce the target dilution ratio (here 1:200). Exclusive to almost all hematology analyzers today, shear values (SV) are used to obtain highly precise volumes. These SV components are however very costly and add a higher complexity to the systems. This thesis was therefore aimed as an experimental evaluation for a novel passive dilution tool called shearing block (SB), which could possibly then replace the SV and be used in the coming Haematology Analyzer Devices manufactured by Boule Medical AB. The SB has the advantages of being low cost, having a simple mechanism, being much more flexible for integration with any microfluidic system and also eliminates the need for complex control systems or equipment, thereby lowering the need for calibration and maintenance. If a SB could replace the SV with an equally precise accuracy on the 20ml blood volume it would be highly beneficial.

The set hypothesis was that the dilution process via the SB, will only be affected by blood viscosity. Through changing the blood’s viscosity, via changing the hematocrit concentration (HCT) and blood sample temperature, this study aimed to conclude if this gave a significant effect on the blood sample dilution via the SB. This was achieved through two performed experiments both including the same control group (CG) along with a test group (TG). All tests were performed using the same blood sample, the same reference measuring device (Medonic M32) and experimental setup. The experimental setup included the control group, CG, (N=30) consisting of 20µl blood samples aspirated through an electronic pipette in room temperature condition being mixed with 4,5ml of diluent reagent that had been automatically dispensed by the Medonic M32 instrument. The 20µl blood together with the 4,5ml diluent resulted in the targeted 1:200 dilution ratio. The test group, TG, (where N=30 for each respective group) was diluted through the SB through a fully automated process for the targeted 1:200 dilution. All diluted blood samples were then analyzed on the Medonic M32 for all hematology parameters and the hemoglobin (HGB) parameter was used as an indicator to quantify the blood volume in the TG runs as compared to the CG reference runs. Two test groups (TG) were analyzed: the first investigating the effect of the HCT and the second of the sample temperature on the blood volume (before dilution) in the SB. The HCT concentration levels were tested at 15%, 27%, 33% and 58% with samples and test run and kept at a constant 25°C. The second test group investigated the effect of 15°C, 25°C, 35°C and 39°C on a blood sample with a constant HCT of 33%.

The main aim of this experimental study was to validate the SB simulation. However, the experiments results, showed that the diluted blood volume via SB was strongly influenced by changes in hematocrit concentration and that the unwanted additional blood volume, was increasing directly proportionally with hematocrit concentration.  On the other hand, there seemed to be no apparent change in the blood volume on the SB diluted samples for the various temperature differences between 15-35°C. To conclude, the experiments results were not consistent with predictions of SB simulation model and there are two reasons that could explain that. Firstly, in the simulation the blood was approximated with a homogeneous fluid with a given viscosity. The second reason is the mismatch between the dilution process via the SB and the simulation (the simulation started with an idealized initial status, whereas the SB channel was prefilled by blood). This means that the simulation excluded any effect that may occur as a convection effect during blood flow inside the channel and whilst encountering diluent reagent. These two reasons explain why the results of the simulation was not consistent with that of the experiments, regarding the unwanted blood volume. Therefore, a new simulation is required. Recommendations for future actions: undoubtedly there are several optimizations that may increase the accuracy of the proposed SB design such as; removing the diluent's reservoir for eliminating the effect of bubbles, changing the geometrical angles or use a smaller diameter for the inlets and outlets of the microchannels to reduce the convection and diffusion effect, (which in turn would reduce the unwanted blood volume). Therefore, determining the best SB's microchannel structure to perform the dilution process with minimum unwanted blood volume remains a near future next step follow-up project.

• 6.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering.
Effect of pediatric growth on cervical spine kinematics and deformations in automotive crashes2018In: Journal of Biomechanics, ISSN 0021-9290, E-ISSN 1873-2380, Vol. 71, p. 76-83, article id S0021-9290(18)30075-7Article in journal (Refereed)

Finite element (FE) models are a powerful tool that can be used to understand injury mechanisms and develop better safety systems. This study aims to extend the understanding of pediatric spine biomechanics, where there is a paucity of studies available. A newly developed and continuously scalable FE model was validated and scaled to 1.5-, 3-, 6-, 10-, 14- and 18-year-old using a non-linear scaling technique, accounting for local topological changes. The oldest and youngest ages were also scaled using homogeneous geometric scaling. To study the effect of pediatric spinal growth on head kinematics and intervertebral disc strain, the models were exerted to 3.5 g acceleration pulse at the T1 vertebra to simulate frontal, rear and side impacts. It was shown that the head rotation increases with age, but is over predicted when geometrically scaling down from 18- to 1.5-year-old and under predicted when geometrically scaling up from 1.5- to 18-year-old. The strain in the disc, however, showed a clear decrease with age in side impact and for the upper cervical spine in rear impact, indicating a higher susceptibility for neck injury at younger ages. In the frontal impact, no clear age dependence could be seen, suggesting a large contribution from changed facet joint angles, and lower levels of strain, suggesting a lower risk of injury. The results also highlight the benefit of rearward facing children in a seat limiting head lateral motion.

• 7.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Optisk metod för glukosmätning: En studie för framtida icke-invasiva blodglukosmätningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Today there are currently living around 365 000 people with diabetes in Sweden. Measuring of blood sugar can be experienced as painful and difficult with blood glucose monitoring devices found in the market. Using lancets and test strip makes direct contact with blood which increases the risk of infection. To reduce these risks and difficulties a non-invasive method is required. This method can even provide an opportunity for healthy individuals to monitor their blood glucose and prevent the disease.This thesis presents the disease, sequelae and the problem around blood glucose monitoring. The work is based on an earlier study about optic measurement of glucose. By illumine a solution of saline and glucose, with infrared-light from a LED, absorption is carried out by the glucose. The amount of transmitted light is detected and processed by a photodetector which generates a current that is converted to a voltage and amplified. This report examines a modification of the circuit used in the previous study to establish a correlation between the glucose concentration and the output voltage by adding a transimpedance amplifier around the photodetector.The results corroborate that the modification with the transimpedance gives a better correlation between the measured output voltage and glucose concentration. The measurements were compiled and plotted to compare which circuit gave a better correlation between the measured output voltage and glucose concentration. The study showed that the modification with transimpedance amplifier gives a better correlation, though it is not enough for clinical use.

• 8.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Framework for Wireless Acquisition of Surface EMG and Real-Time Control2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Muscle driven devices are controlled or powered with muscle activation. These devices open up the possibility of offering patients with limited muscle function to automatically control assistive devices - for instance exoskeletons - with input from their own muscles. This solution would help a number of patient groups suffering from common conditions, such as spinal cord injuries, stroke and cerebral palsy.

To use muscle activation as input it is necessary to have a way to communicate with the mus- cles. Electromyography (EMG) is a technology used to gain information about muscle function and activation. It is performed by measuring and analyzing electrical signals conducted by the muscles during activation. Activation and activation level can be seen from analyzed EMG signal. EMG signals are frequently measured and analyzed afterwards, however, to use it as a controlling an assistive devices, real time analysis is necessary. In this thesis real time acquisi- tion and analysis of EMG was performed. The measured signal was used as an input to control a simple MATLAB computer game.

The EMG of a muscle of the forearm, Brachioradialis, was measured with Myon Aktos sys- tem. The measured signal was written to a server as soon as the measurements were acquired. MATLAB was used to connect to the server and performing the signal analysis. The analysis was kept simple in order to limit delay.

The result showed that it was possible to acquire real time signal with this method. The delay was negligible, both for the testing and for the game play.

Showing that it is possible to play a game with muscle activation supports the idea of a motor that can be controlled automatically with muscle input. Future work should focus on understanding movement intent with respect to EMG and on analyzing multiple signals from different muscles at the same time.

• 9.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
A Benchmark of Prevalent Feature Selection Algorithms on a Diverse Set of Classification Problems2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Feature selection is the process of automatically selecting important features from data. It is an essential part of machine learning, artificial intelligence, data mining, and modelling in general. There are many feature selection algorithms available and the appropriate choice can be difficult. The aim of this thesis was to compare feature selection algorithms in order to provide an experimental basis for which algorithm to choose. The first phase involved assessing which algorithms are most common in the scientific community, through a systematic literature study in the two largest reference databases: Scopus and Web of Science. The second phase involved constructing and implementing a benchmark pipeline to compare 31 algorithms’ performance on 50 data sets.The selected features were used to construct classification models and their predictive performances were compared, as well as the runtime of the selection process. The results show a small overall superiority of embedded type algorithms, especially types that involve Decision Trees. However, there is no algorithm that is significantly superior in every case. The pipeline and data from the experiments can be used by practitioners in determining which algorithms to apply to their respective problems.

• 10.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Creating an Individualized Predictive Model of PAO2 and PACO2 Changes During Voluntary Static Apnea for Sedentary Subjects2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

The primary aim of this study was to fill a gap in the literature in understanding maximal BH in untrained, non-divers by generating a predictive numerical model for PAO2 and PACO2 throughout BH. There have been little to no previous attempts at explicitly characterizing the influence of impermanent personal or environmental factors on PAO2 or PACO2 at BH breakpoint. The metabolic human consumption of O2 and production of CO2 as measured through alveolar partial pressures was observed over time during a voluntary maximum breath-hold for 18 members of the general population. The coefficient of determination was used to determine accuracy of the model in fitting participants’ BH data from this experiment. The volume of the last inhalation pre-BH, time to subjective breakpoint, and breath-to-breath calculated respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were identified as the most influential combination of key variables that improved PAO2 model fit (from R2 = 0.8591 to R2 = 0.8840). Clustering methods coupled with two sample t-tests or ANOVA were then used to identify survey responses most correlated to inter-BH similarities. These were barometric pressure, age, height, weight, resting HR, smoker/ freediver/scuba experience, and weekly frequency of engaging in physical exercise. The model was validated on testing data from an experienced free-diver, from non-rebreathing trials of a sample of the participants, and from simulated dives of 5 participants from research in the Environmental Physiology Department of Karolinska in 1994 [1]. It has been suggested that the presented model can be a valuable tool in developing safer free diving practices. Furthermore, interesting trends in continuous HR, starting PACO2 values, and O2 consumption were observed and analyzed using statistical analysis. Findings were discussed with connection to the underlying physiological principles that might explain the results obtained.

• 11.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
Samverkan för innovation: En fallstudie av mötet mellan akademi, industri och sjukvård2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

Samverkan kan leda till innovation, konkurrenskraftiga företag, förstklassig forskning samt välfungerande myndigheter och institutioner. I den politiska debatten idag finns en förväntan att Sverige ska upprätthålla sin konkurrenskraft och bemöta samhällets utmaningar genom innovation och att vägen till innovation går via samverkan. Avhandlingen bygger på en studie av ett samverkansprojekt vars syfte var att skapa innovation för att minska antalet vårdrelaterade infektioner i Sverige. Projektet som studerats ses som en transdisciplinär ansats med aktörer som representerade akademi, industri samt hälso- och sjukvård.

Syftet med avhandlingen är att vidareutveckla kunskapen om interorganisatorisk samverkan för innovation. Detta görs genom ett tredelat bidrag, till teoribildningen kring samverkan för innovation som börjat växa fram, till den samverkande praktiken inom både privat och offentlig sektor samt till politiker och beslutsfattare som styr fördelning av statliga anslag till forskning och innovation.

Fallstudien som ligger till grund för avhandlingen är baserad på en etnografiskt inspirerad studie. Empiriskt material samlades in och skapades tillsammans med aktörerna i projektet under drygt två års tid genom intervjuer och deltagande observation.

Studien visar att interorganisatorisk samverkan består av flera dimensioner och kan förstås på flera nivåer. Interorganisatorisk samverkan innebär inte bara att det är olika organisationer som ska göra en gemensam ansträngning. Organisationerna består av olika människor med olika discipliner och professioner vilka bygger på olika utgångspunkter och sätt att se på världen. Samverkan kan ses som ett sätt att fylla mellanrummen mellan organisationer istället för att bygga broar över gränser. I de organisatoriska mellanrummen kan aktörer från olika organisationer, med olika discipliner och professioner mötas utan institutionaliserade roller, i en receptiv kontext där innovation kan skapas.

• 12.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
Uppsala universitet.
The clash of managerial and professional logics in public procurement: Implications for innovation in the health-care sector.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 78-90Article in journal (Refereed)

This article addresses the enactment of public procurement and its influence on adoption and diffusion of innovation, using a case study of public procurement of a low-tech medical device innovation in Swedish healthcare. Based on interviews and documentation, the article illustrates the various perspectives of the different professions involved in the complex task of setting the requirement specification for the tender. The technology identities of the medical device (innovation) are constructed and negotiated by the actors: procurement administrators, health-care professionals and suppliers within the adoption space. Examining the enactment of the procurement process as part of the adoption space is a way to deepen our understanding of the social component within public procurement.

• 13. Babapour, Maral
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
Policies in Activity-based Flexible Offices: ‘I am sloppy with clean-desking. We don’t really know the rules.’2018In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Article in journal (Refereed)

Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are offices with unassigned desks that provide a variety of workspaces. This paper presents desk-sharing and speech rules identified in A-FOs in four Swedish organisations, the emergence of and compliance with these rules, and their consequences for work conditions. Data collection involved 105 semi-structured interviews, document analyses, and observations. The identified rules were: (1) to remove belongings, (2) temporal restrictions on using the same workstations, (3) temporal restrictions on using scarce zones, (4) restrictions on verbal interactions, and (5) restrictions on phone conversations. The cases with extensive user involvement in their planning process had explicit unambiguous rules. A better compliance with rules occurred when (i) the employees were well-prepared and had a unified understanding regarding how and why to follow the rules, (ii) the rules were explicitly communicated and were regarded as easy to follow, and (iii) following the rules facilitated work and improved work conditions.

• 14.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
Ökad lokal nytta av förnyelsebar energiproduktion med hybridkraftverk2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Renewable and environmentally friendly electricity production is a necessity for the relative positive value of the products and processes that consumes electricity. It is not enough that these products and processes in and of themselves are effective in their use of electricity if that electricity is produced with non- renewable means. The goal of this project is the creation of a simulation software that can simulate a hybrid powerplant composed of wind turbines and a hydro powerplant. The result of this project is a simulation software that is able is to approximate the size of a pumped-storage megawatts and the size of the reservoir needed. In addition, the software calculates the amount of wind turbines needed in combination with the hydro powerplant to achieve a desired decrease in non-renewable electricity.

• 15.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. HELIX Competence Centre and Division of Logistics and Quality Management, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
From Safety I to Safety II: Applying an HTO Perspective on Supervisory Work Within Aviation2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 558-565Conference paper (Refereed)

In aviation, there is a strong focus on safety to prevent accidents. This paper deals with how supervisory authorities in aviation can apply a Safety II perspective. In particular, the aim is to analyze how the concept of HTO (Humans, Technology, Organization) is related to a possible shift from Safety I to Safety II within supervisory work within aviation. Data for this case study research was collected through semi-structured interviews with inspectors at the civil aviation authority in Sweden. The study showed that the important building stone of proactivity in Safety II could be promoted by the Safety Management System (SMS), the Safety Performance Indicator, and systems for reporting incidents and near-accidents. These systems constituted examples of Technology. Similarly, the Humans consisted of the inspectors, and the Organization included international and national regulations that the inspectors needed to follow during inspections. In the analysis, it was clear that an internal HTO-perspective could be taken. The study indicated that the shift towards Safety II should first be done within the supervisory authority by applying an internal HTO-perspective. This could later be developed to an external HTO-perspective also including the operator organizations.

• 16.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Automatisering av skjuvvågselastografidata för kärldiagnostisk applikation.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Sammanfattning

Hjärt- och kärlsjukdommar är den ledande dödsorsaken i världen. En av det vanligaste hjärt- och kärlsjukdomarna är åderförkalkning. Sjukdomen kännetecknas av förhårdning samt plackansamling i kärl och bidrar till stroke och hjärtinfarkt. Information om kärlväggens styvhet kan spela en viktig roll vid diagnostiseringen av bland annat åderförkalkning. Skjuvvågselastografi (SWE) är en noninvasiv ultraljudsbaserad metod som idag används för att mäta elasticitet och styvhet av större mjuka vävnader som lever- och bröstvävnad. Dock används inte metoden inom kärlapplikationer, då få genomgående studier har utförts på SWE för kärl. Målet med projektet är att automatisera kvantifieringen av skjuvvågshastigheten för SWE och undersöka hur automatiseringens förmåga och begränsningar beror av automatiseringsinställningar. Med verktyg erhållna från CBH (skolan för kemi, bioteknologi och hälsa) skapades ett MATLAB-program med denna förmåga. Programmet applicerades på två fantommodeller. Automatiseringsinställningarna påverkade automatiseringen av dessa modeller olika, vilket innebar att generella optimala inställningar inte kunde finnas. Optimala inställningar beror på vad automatiseringen skall undersöka.

• 17.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Dept Biol, Fac Ciencias, P-4169007 Porto, Portugal.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab Uppsala, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.. Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.. Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.. Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;CSIC, Inst Invest Recursos Cineget IREC, Ciudad Real 13005, Spain.;UCLM, CSIC, Ciudad Real 13005, Spain.. Univ Porto, Ctr Invest Biodiversidade & Recursos Genet CIBIO, InBIO, P-4485661 Vairao, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Dept Biol, Fac Ciencias, P-4169007 Porto, Portugal.;Univ Johannesburg, Dept Zool, ZA-2006 Auckland Pk, South Africa.. Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab Uppsala, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.. CSIC, IESA, Cordoba 14004, Spain.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Expt Res & Imaging Ctr, S-17176 Solna, Sweden.. Uppsala Univ, Dept Neurosci, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.. Uppsala Univ, Dept Psychol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.. Uppsala Univ, Sci Life Lab Uppsala, Dept Med Biochem & Microbiol, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden.;Texas A&M Univ, Coll Vet Med & Biomed Sci, Dept Vet Integrat Biosci, College Stn, TX 77843 USA.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Anim Breeding & Genet, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
Changes in brain architecture are consistent with altered fear processing in domestic rabbits2018In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 115, no 28, p. 7380-7385Article in journal (Refereed)

The most characteristic feature of domestic animals is their change in behavior associated with selection for tameness. Here we show, using high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging in wild and domestic rabbits, that domestication reduced amygdala volume and enlarged medial prefrontal cortex volume, supporting that areas driving fear have lost volume while areas modulating negative affect have gained volume during domestication. In contrast to the localized gray matter alterations, white matter anisotropy was reduced in the corona radiata, corpus callosum, and the subcortical white matter. This suggests a compromised white matter structural integrity in projection and association fibers affecting both afferent and efferent neural flow, consistent with reduced neural processing. We propose that compared with their wild ancestors, domestic rabbits are less fearful and have an attenuated flight response because of these changes in brain architecture.

• 18.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. Politecnico di Milano, CartCasLab, Department of Electronics Information and Bioengineering, piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 42, Milan 20133, Italy.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
Early tumor response prediction for lung cancer patients using novel longitudinal pattern features from sequential PET/CT image scans2018In: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 54, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)

Purpose: A new set of quantitative features that capture intensity changes in PET/CT images over time and space is proposed for assessing the tumor response early during chemoradiotherapy. The hypothesis whether the new features, combined with machine learning, improve outcome prediction is tested. Methods: The proposed method is based on dividing the tumor volume into successive zones depending on the distance to the tumor border. Mean intensity changes are computed within each zone, for CT and PET scans separately, and used as image features for tumor response assessment. Doing so, tumors are described by accounting for temporal and spatial changes at the same time. Using linear support vector machines, the new features were tested on 30 non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent sequential or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Prediction of 2-years overall survival was based on two PET-CT scans, acquired before the start and during the first 3 weeks of treatment. The predictive power of the newly proposed longitudinal pattern features was compared to that of previously proposed radiomics features and radiobiological parameters. Results: The highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.98 and 0.93 for patients treated with sequential and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, respectively. Results showed an overall comparable performance with respect to radiomics features and radiobiological parameters. Conclusions: A novel set of quantitative image features, based on underlying tumor physiology, was computed from PET/CT scans and successfully employed to distinguish between early responders and non-responders to chemoradiotherapy.

• 19.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. Politecn Milan, CartCasLab, Dept Elect Informat & Bioengn, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 42, I-20133 Milan, Italy..
Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Med Radiat Phys, S-17176 Solna, Sweden.. Karolinska Univ Sjukhuset, Karolinska Inst, Dept Oncol Pathol, Med Radiat Phys, S-17176 Solna, Sweden.. Politecn Milan, CartCasLab, Dept Elect Informat & Bioengn, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 42, I-20133 Milan, Italy.. Politecn Milan, CartCasLab, Dept Elect Informat & Bioengn, Piazza Leonardo Da Vinci 42, I-20133 Milan, Italy.;Ludwig Maximilians Univ Munchen, Fac Phys, Coloumbwall 1, D-5748 Garching, Germany.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
Early tumor response prediction for lung cancer patients using novel longitudinal pattern features from sequential PET/CT image scans2018In: Physica medica (Testo stampato), ISSN 1120-1797, E-ISSN 1724-191X, Vol. 54, p. 21-29Article in journal (Refereed)

Purpose: A new set of quantitative features that capture intensity changes in PET/CT images over time and space is proposed for assessing the tumor response early during chemoradiotherapy. The hypothesis whether the new features, combined with machine learning, improve outcome prediction is tested. Methods: The proposed method is based on dividing the tumor volume into successive zones depending on the distance to the tumor border. Mean intensity changes are computed within each zone, for CT and PET scans separately, and used as image features for tumor response assessment. Doing so, tumors are described by accounting for temporal and spatial changes at the same time. Using linear support vector machines, the new features were tested on 30 non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent sequential or concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Prediction of 2-years overall survival was based on two PET-CT scans, acquired before the start and during the first 3 weeks of treatment. The predictive power of the newly proposed longitudinal pattern features was compared to that of previously proposed radiomics features and radiobiological parameters. Results: The highest areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.98 and 0.93 for patients treated with sequential and concurrent chemoradiotherapy, respectively. Results showed an overall comparable performance with respect to radiomics features and radiobiological parameters. Conclusions: A novel set of quantitative image features, based on underlying tumor physiology, was computed from PET/CT scans and successfully employed to distinguish between early responders and non-responders to chemoradiotherapy.

• 20.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Technology in Health Care.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Technology in Health Care.
Perspectives of older adults and informal caregivers on information visualization for smart home monitoring systems: A critical review2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, p. 681-690Conference paper (Refereed)

Although health monitoring systems in smart homes have been revealed as a significant tool to help people ageing in place, the density of data poses a challenge on the information visualization. This review aims to make contributions to find gaps in the field of information visualization regarding smart home monitoring for older people. Three kinds of information needs of older adults and their informal caregivers regarding smart home monitoring are categorized, including physical needs, emotional needs and cognitive needs. The research studies reflect that these needs are mainly used to discuss ideas of, design approaches for, the information visualization from ten aspects in the visceral level, behavioral level and reflective level. Results show that there is still a big gap existing in enabling older people and their informal caregivers to better understand smart home monitoring information. Some existing design recommendations can be improved while at the same time, some needs have not been manifested through information visualization. A wider understanding of older adults, informal caregivers and home living environment in all aspects are necessary.

• 21.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. Karolinska Institutet (KI), CLINTEC – Division of Medical Imaging and Technology.
Sequence design for ultrasound imaging of polyvinyl alcohol microbubbles2019Conference paper (Refereed)

Nonlinear behavior of the ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) offers a unique feature to be distinguished from the surrounding tissue. In a recent years several methods were developed to enhance the nonlinear response of UCA. Crucial for efficient differentiation of the nonlinear response of UCA from the surrounding tissue is to design the contrast pulse sequence specific to the unique nonlinear properties that the particular UCA is offering.

In the previous study, the nonlinear response from a novel polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microbubbles (MB), in ultra-harmonic region was investigated over a pressure range from 50 kPa to 300 kPa. In this study, five contrast pulse sequences and reference B-mode sequence were designed to visualize PVA MB. The performance of those sequences were evaluated and compared.

• 22.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
Polymer Microbubbles as Dual Modal Contrast Agent for Ultrasound and Computed Tomography2018Conference paper (Refereed)

The hybrid imaging combines the anatomical information with the functional or metabolic information using different conventional single imaging modalities improving the overall diagnosis outcome of the clinical examination. Since the introduction of the first hybrid imaging device PET-CT in 1998 different combinations of hybrid imaging were developed such as PET-MRI, SPECT-CT.

However, lack of multimodal contrast agent specifically aimed for hybrid imaging limits the diagnostic outcome of these novel techniques. Initial attempts in fabrication of hybrid contrast agents were made by combining previously existing single modal contrast agents into one. In this study, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microbubbles (MB) and gold nanoparticles - which by themselves are already established contrast agents used in preclinical studies for ultrasound and CT, respectively - were chosen as parent contrast agents to fabricate the dual modal Contrast Agent for UltraSound and CT (CACTUS).

Method

The fabrication of MBs was adapted from Cavalieri et al.[1]. PVA powder (Sigma Aldrich, MO USA) was dissolved in the water at 80°C. The aqueous PVA-chains were cleaved by sodium metaperiodate (NaIO4, purity>99.0%, Sigma Aldrich, MO USA). Vigorous stirring force was applied to the resulting telechelic aldehydic PVA-chains for 2 hours to crosslink the telechelic aldehydic PVA-chains and form the PVA-coated MBs at the water-air interface.

CACTUS MBs were synthesized in a similar fashion to the above, but adding gold nanoparticles (diameter 1.9nm, Nanoprobes, NY, USA) during formation of the MBs.

The size distributions of MBs and CACATUS MBs were determined using an optical microscope (ECLIPSE Ci-S, Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) and a Neubauer counting chamber (Brand GmbH, Wertheim, Germany).

The acoustic attenuation coefficients of the MBs suspension were acquired at peak negative pressure (PNP) from 10 - 300 kPa. Three MBs suspension samples with concentrations of (sample A),  (sample B) and  ml-1 (sample C) were prepared and loaded in a 1 cm thick two-cavity chamber. A flat single crystal ultrasound transducer with central frequency 3.5MHz was used to generate the ultrasound beam. The amplitude of received echoes through samples and water were compared at the fundamental frequency, as well as the 2nd and 3rd harmonic for each value of the concentration used.

The mass attenuation of water, suspension of gold nanoparticles with concentration 160mg/L, plain MBs, and CACTUS MBs, was measured by quantum FX-CT micro-CT (PerkinElmer Inc, MA, USA). The micro-CT was operated at a current of 200mA with exposure time of 120s and varied voltage 50kV, 70kV and 90kV. Each 3D image has a size of 512*512*512 pixels or 75.8*75.8*75.8 mm. Contrast to noise ratios (CNR) between water and all samples were calculated following Eq. 1.$CNR=\frac{Singal difference}{Noise}=\frac{\int_{}^{}S(x,y,z)+ns(x,y,z)-W(x,y,z)-nw(x,y,z)dxdydz}{\sqrt[]{\int_{}^{}\frac{1}{2}dxdydz}}=\sqrt[]{N}*\frac{M_{s}-M_{w}}{\sqrt[]{\frac{1}{2}sigma_{\sigma_{s}^{2}+\sigma_{w}^{2}})}}=\sqrt[]{N}* CNR per voxel$Where S(x,y,z) and W(x,y,z) are the mass attenuation of the sample and water per voxel, respectively. ns(x,y,z) and nw(x,y,z) are the noise function with zero mean of sample and water respectively. Ms and Mw are the mean mass attenuation acquired for the sample and water in the volume of interest. The σs2 and σw2 are the variance of the mass attenuation read out of the sample and water in the volume of interested.

In addition to the gas-core MBs for the CT tests, liquid-core gold loaded capsules were synthesized in two steps. In the first step, PVA shelled liquid-core capsules were obtained by exposing MBs to 66% v/v ethanol solution. In the second step, the resulting liquid-core capsules were mixed with high concentration gold nanoparticles suspension and homogenized by a shaker (MS 3 basic, IKA, Königswinter Germany) at 500rpm for 1 hour for goal loading. The resulting gold loaded capsules were washed with Milli-Q water using centrifuge (Galaxy 5D digital microcentrifuge, VWR, USA) at a speed of 1000 g for 5 min.

Results and discussion

The mean diameter of MBs is 3.6±1.1 μm. The mean diameter of CACTUS MBs is 3.2±0.7 μm. The size distribution of the gold loaded capsules was not investigated separately, but rather assumed identical to the plain MBs. The number and the volume distribution of MBs and CACTUS MBs are shown in figure 1. The results demonstrate that most of the CACTUS MBs and MBs have a diameter from 1 to 6 μm. Therefore, they are able pass through the capillaries and will resonate within typical clinical diagnostic ultrasound frequency below 15 MHz.

Pressure dependent acoustic attenuation coefficients of the sample A, B, and C are shown in figure 2. The results show that attenuation coefficients of sample A and B at the fundamental frequency stay constant and slightly increase at the second harmonic at the PNP below 100kPa, indicating a linear oscillation of MBs. As the PNP reaches 200kPa, the attenuation coefficient of sample A at fundamental frequency decreases while at 2nd and 3rd harmonics increases, indicating that the energy of the echo shifts from the fundamental frequency to the 2nd and 3rd harmonics. As the PNP goes higher to 300kPa, the attenuation coefficient of sample A at the fundamental frequency, 2nd, and 3rd harmonics decreases, suggesting that the energy shifts to an even higher harmonic. At the same time, the attenuation coefficient of sample B stays constant at fundamental frequency, decreases at 2nd harmonics, and increases at the 3rd harmonic, suggesting the energy starts to shift to the 3rd harmonic. The attenuation coefficient of sample C at fundamental frequency, 2nd and 3rd harmonics keep constant and low due to low sample concentration. The test reveals the energy shifting of the echo to the higher harmonics at PNP higher than 100 kPa, indicating the nonlinear oscillation of MBs at PNP higher than 100 kPa. Moreover, the concentration of the MBs seems to influence the energy shifting: the higher the concentration the earlier the shift to the higher harmonics occurs, in the range of the concentration consider in this study.

The pilot results of the micro-CT tests are presented in Table 1. The reference, gold nanoparticles solution, has the highest CNR per voxel at all CT operating voltages. The CNR per voxel of CACTUS MBs suspensions is below 0.1, virtually equaling the MBs at all operating voltages, suggesting that no gold or very little gold were loaded into the shell of the CACTUS MBs. The gold loaded capsules suspension has higher CNR per voxel than the capsule supernatant (the surrounding environment of capsules) and the MBs suspension, implying that the gold nanoparticles were loaded into the capsules. However, it is not clear whether the gold nanoparticles were loaded in the core of the MBs or in the MBs shell. The expected sharp increase of CNR per voxel at the k-edge of gold did not appear. We believe that is because even at our highest operating voltage of 90kV, the percentage of the photons with energy higher than 80.7 keV is still low. Introduction of a high-pass metal filter could increase the percentage of high energy photon. On the other hand, the metal filter will reduce the total number of the photons which would increase the noise of the images. Since same current was applied on every CT test, less X-ray photons reached the sensors when the CT was operated at low voltage. Therefore, it might be worth performing additional calibration tests to adjust the operating currents to make sure that the numbers of the photons that reach the sensor at every operating voltage are the same.

Conclusion

In this study, the CACTUS MBs and gold loaded capsules were fabricated as potential candidates for dual modal contrast agent. The characterization revealed that gold loaded capsule is a promising initial step. Nevertheless, the method to convert back liquid-core capsules to gas-core MBs needs to be established.

[1] Cavalieri, F., El Hamassi, A., Chiessi, E., Paradossi, G., Villa, R., & Zaffaroni, N. (2006). Tethering functional ligands onto shell of ultrasound active polymeric microbubbles. Biomacromolecules, 7(2), 604-611.

• 23.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
GDPR i praktiken2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Med den nya dataskyddsförordningen (GDPR) i EU ställs det högre krav på hantering avpersonuppgifter och för första gången riskerar företag sanktioner om de inte hanterar personuppgifterkorrekt, vilket medför att alla organisationer måste ta ställning till hur personuppgifterskall hanteras inom organisationen. Inom IT-sektorn måste en analys utföras omvilka data som kommer att påverkas med införandet av GDPR och hur data ska hanteras inuvarande IT-system. Studien har genomförts hos företaget Primona som är placerade iStockholm där de utvecklar lösningar inom inköp och elektronisk handel.Den nya dataskyddsförordningen och relaterade arbeten har studerats tillsammans medintervjuer som utfördes på olika företag för att framställa ett lösningsförslag. Lösningsförslagethar sedan använts i ett implementeringstest i Primonas system för att visa att detfungerar. Studien innehåller även en ekonomisk analys för att fastställa betydelsen av attimplementeringen hanteras och prioriteras.Lösningsförslaget som studien tog fram har gett bevisad effekt i systemet och kan medrelativ lite resurser återanvändas för att säkerställa att en organisation vidtar tillräckligaåtgärder vid införande av GDPR.

• 24.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Utveckling av en interaktiv miljö för inlärning av nya sjukhuslokaler2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Målet med detta projekt var att simulera den nya byggnaden på Södersjukhuset, ”Operation Pre/Post” för våningsplan 2 och 4. Detta skulle göras på ett sådant sätt att personalen som använde simuleringen kunde lära sig att lokalisera sig i sjukhusavdelningen innan de flyttade dit. För att göra detta möjligt har spelmotorn Unity3D använts, samt ritningar på den nya byggnaden. För att ta reda på om användare av det framtagna spelet verkligen lärde sig att orientera sig i den nya byggnaden, gjordes ett test på Södersjukhusets personal. Detta visade att det är fullt möjligt att få en inlärning av den nya sjukhusbyggnaden med hjälp av det framtagna spelet. Efter en total inlärningstid på cirka 25 minuter, visade läkarna som använt simuleringen en minskning i orienteringstid på 31,6 % i medelvärde. Från början var tanken att simulera båda våningar, men på grund av tidsbrist lyckades bara ett våningsplan skapas. Av denna anledning uppnåddes inte målet helt, vilket innebär att det finns utrymme för framtida arbete inom projektet.

• 25.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
Analys av tekniska möjligheter för tredjepartsaktörer att integrera med banker2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Banks internet activity have opened new possibilities for third party actors within the fintechindustry who can now create innovative economy and payment solutions by directlyinteracting with bank accounts. A problem for the fintech companies is that there is noavailable information about what technologies are available for them to use to get access tothe banks services and which technology is the most advantageous for their purpose.In this work, the four biggest swedish banks Nordea, Handelsbanken, SEB and Swedbankhave been examined to find out what options third party actors have to integrate with thebanks services. The examination showed that fintech companies will be able to or are able touse one of the three techniques SFTP, REST or web automation. A test environment for thethree technologies was developed to simulate real use cases for fintech companies. CPU-,RAM- and network usage as well as total operating time was measured for the threetechnologies. For sending information REST was the more effective technology when it cameto lower data volumes while SFTP was the most efficient with bigger data volumes. RESTwas the most efficient for retrieving information, no matter the data volume. Web automationwas the least efficient compared to both the other technologies.

• 26.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems.
Utveckling av en applikation för rullstolsflödet på Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset i Solna2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

I dagens samhälle har spårbarhet av medicintekniska hjälpmedel fått en allt viktigare innebörd inom sjukvården. En anledning till det är att de flesta hjälpmedel klassas som medicintekniska produkter vilka enligt Socialstyrelsens föreskrifter måste kunna spåras. Därför märks många hjälpmedel med streckkoder eller liknande markörer. På Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset i Solna önskar man förbättra spårbarheten av rullstolar och få en bättre översikt över vilka som är utlånade och förskrivna.

En metod för att lösa detta problem är genom att digitalisera flödesprocessen för rullstolar. I det här arbetet har ett digitalt program utvecklats för att ersätta ett antal steg i flödesprocessen som i nuläget hanteras manuellt med penna och papper. Genom att digitalisera delar av processen och se över möjligheter att implementera scanners kan informationen kvalitetssäkras och arbetet effektiviseras. Resultatet visar att ett sådant program som det som utvecklades skulle vara gynnsamt för sjukhuset och skulle bidra till en bättre kontroll över rullstolsflödet. I och med arbetet har en god grund lagts för att digitalisera hanteringen av hjälpmedel och utveckla processerna.

• 27.
Univ Pisa, Res Ctr E Piaggio, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, I-56122 Pisa, Italy.;Univ Pisa, Dept Ingn Informaz, Pisa, Italy..
Univ Pisa, Res Ctr E Piaggio, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, I-56122 Pisa, Italy.. Univ Politecn Madrid, Mech Engn Dept, Madrid, Spain.. Kenyatta Univ, Dept Elect & Elect Engn, Nairobi, Kenya.. Ugandan Ind Res Inst, Kampala, Uganda.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics. BioInd Pk Silvano Fumero, Turin, Italy.. Univ Tartu, Inst Technol, Tartu, Estonia.. Univ Pisa, Res Ctr E Piaggio, Largo Lucio Lazzarino 1, I-56122 Pisa, Italy.;Univ Pisa, Dept Ingn Informaz, Pisa, Italy..
Safe innovation: On medical device legislation in Europe and Africa2018In: Health Policy and Technology, ISSN 2211-8837, E-ISSN 2211-8845, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 156-165Article in journal (Refereed)

Objectives: The principal motivation for regulating medical devices is to protect patients and users. Complying with regulations may result in an increase in development, manufacturing and service costs for medical companies and ultimately for healthcare providers and patients, limiting the access to adequate medical equipment. On the other hand, poor regulatory control has resulted in the use of substandard devices. This study aims at comparing the certification route that manufactures have to respect for marketing a medical device in some African Countries and in European Union. Methods: We examined and compared the current and future regulations on medical devices in the European Union and in some countries in Africa. Contextually we proposed future approaches to open design strategies supported by emerging technologies as a means to enhance economically sustainable healthcare system driven by innovation. Results: African medical device regulations have an affinity to European directives, despite the fact that the latter are particularly strict. Several states have also implemented or harmonized directives to medical device regulation, or have expressed interest in establishing them in their legislation. Open Source Medical Devices hold a great promise to reduce costs but do need a high level of supervision, to control their quality and to guarantee their respect for safety standards. Conclusion: Harmonization across the two continents could be leveraged to optimize the costs of device manufacture and sale. Regulated open design strategies can enhance economically sustainable innovation. (C) 2018 Fellowship of Postgraduate Medicine.

• 28. Debevec, T.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
Hypoxia aggravates inactivity-Related muscle wasting2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, no May, article id 494Article in journal (Refereed)

Poor musculoskeletal state is commonly observed in numerous clinical populations such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and heart failure patients. It, however, remains unresolved whether systemic hypoxemia, typically associated with such clinical conditions, directly contributes to muscle deterioration. We aimed to experimentally elucidate the effects of systemic environmental hypoxia upon inactivity-related muscle wasting. For this purpose, fourteen healthy, male participants underwent three 21-day long interventions in a randomized, cross-over designed manner: (i) bed rest in normoxia (NBR; PiO2 = 133.1 ± 0.3 mmHg), (ii) bed rest in normobaric hypoxia (HBR; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg) and ambulatory confinement in normobaric hypoxia (HAmb; PiO2 = 90.0 ± 0.4 mmHg). Peripheral quantitative computed tomography and vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were performed before and after the interventions to obtain thigh and calf muscle cross-sectional areas and muscle fiber phenotype changes, respectively. A significant reduction of thigh muscle size following NBR (-6.9%, SE 0.8%; P &lt; 0.001) was further aggravated following HBR (-9.7%, SE 1.2%; P = 0.027). Bed rest-induced muscle wasting in the calf was, by contrast, not exacerbated by hypoxic conditions (P = 0.47). Reductions in both thigh (-2.7%, SE 1.1%, P = 0.017) and calf (-3.3%, SE 0.7%, P &lt; 0.001) muscle size were noted following HAmb. A significant and comparable increase in type 2× fiber percentage of the vastus lateralis muscle was noted following both bed rest interventions (NBR = +3.1%, SE 2.6%, HBR = +3.9%, SE 2.7%, P &lt; 0.05). Collectively, these data indicate that hypoxia can exacerbate inactivity-related muscle wasting in healthy active participants and moreover suggest that the combination of both, hypoxemia and lack of activity, as seen in COPD patients, might be particularly harmful for muscle tissue.

• 29. Dellve, Lotta
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
How can support resources support sustainable leadership in healthcare?2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
• 30.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
Local intravascular pressure habituation in relation to G-induced arm pain2012In: Aviat Space Environ Med, Vol. 83, no 7, p. 667-672, article id 22779309Article in journal (Refereed)

Background: During high +Gz loads, pilots may experience arm pain. It is commonlyassumed that such pain is caused by distension of blood vessels and that vascular distensibility adapts to the prevailing transmural pressure. The aim was to investigate whether vascular pressure habituation (PH) is as efficient in alleviating G-induced arm pain as using counterpressure/support garments. Methods: In Series I, 7 subjects underwent a 5-wk PH regimen, consisting of 15 40-minsessions, during which intravascular pressures in one arm were elevated by 65-105 mmHg. Before andafter PH, arm pain was determined during incremental +Gz -exposures in a centrifuge. In Series II, the effect on G-induced arm pain of wearing protective garments around the lower partof the upper armwas investigated in 10 subjects in 4 conditions: 1) counterpressure; 2) rigid support; 3) sham support; and 4) no support (control). Pain was rated using a 10-point graded scale. Results: PH reduced arm pain at 7.5 G from [median (range)] 4 (2-9) to 2 (0-5) in the pressure-habituated arm. The sham support did not affect pain compared to in the control condition (5.2; 3.0-10.0), whereas pain was reduced by both the rigid support (3.7; 1.0-8.0) and the counterpressure (2.5; 0.0-5.5). PH was as efficient in alleviating pain as the counterpressure and more efficient than the rigid support. Discussion: The results support the notion that G-induced arm pain is causedby vascular overdistension. Repeated moderate elevations of local intravascular pressure reduce G-induced arm pain, presumably because such PH reduces vascular distensibility.

• 31.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
Automatisk detektering av andning2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Hammed Hammid Mohammed, universitetsadjunkt vid KTH i Flemingsberg gav uppdragetatt utveckla en mobil kontaktlös andningsbevakare för spädbarn och äldre i form av en mobilapplikationsom använder sig av kameran för att detektera fel i andningen. Denna skullefungera som ett billigare och enklare alternativ till konventionella andningsbevakningsinstrument.Uppgiften utfördes genom att först genomföra en litteraturstudie för att finna olikaalgoritmer och matematiska modeller att implementera och testa. Andra steget var att testade mest lämpade algoritmerna och matematiska modellerna i en datorprototyp gjord i Matlabför att se ifall dessa fungerade som det var tänkt. Tredje steget var att föra över datorprototypensalgoritmer så fullständigt som möjligt till en mobilapplikation.Arbetet resulterade i en algoritm, implementerbar i mobiltelefon, som kan ingå som indikationpå att andning pågår. Detta föregicks av tester av olika parametrar såsom belysning, kontraster,avstånd, position och vinklar mellan mobilkameran och försökspersonen. Testernavisade att stark ljussättning, goda kontraster mellan försöksperson och bakgrund samt rättavstånd och position mellan kamera och försöksperson gav goda resultat.Resultatet i sin helhet gav insikten att användandet av den matematiska algoritmen FFT (FastFourier Transform) kan ingå som indikator på att det är andning som detekteras.

• 32.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
Artificiell intelligens och maskinlärning i finansbranschen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

To always be able to offer their services as a financial institution, it’s important for them to always stay informed and updated when new regulations come into force. Today it contributes to high costs, largely due to humanitarian power. A literature study was performed to see as to what extent artificial intelligence or machine learning could be used to reduce the problem. The result of the study showed that machine learning was the best suited method for this problem. There were not the most optimal conditions to achieve the best possible result, despite that, the result gave promising ability to classify products to regulations. The possibility of applying machine learning and artificial intelligence is good but it is important to have extremely large amounts of training and test data in order to make the financial industry more effective.

• 33.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Helix Competence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
Application of the HTO Concept for a Powered Pallet Truck2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 482-485Conference paper (Refereed)

Truck drivers suffer work injuries to a higher extent than most other occupations. The HTO concept and the interaction framework were applied in a pre-study leading to a redesign of a new powered pallet truck. The old truck was evaluated using a literature study, interviews, observations, injury statistics and benchmarking, as part of the HTO analysis. The analyses showed that the driver often stood on the rear part of the platform with the heels outside the platform, making them vulnerable to injury. The injury statistics also showed that drivers of powered pallet trucks had more heel injuries than drivers of other truck types. There were two reasons for this. The steering arm was slightly too long, and the vibration damping was better the further back the drivers stood on the platform. This study led to redesign of the steering arm and platform suspension in the new truck generation. The combination of the HTO concept and the interaction framework supported the analysis in identifying relationships that otherwise would not have been obvious.

• 34.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
Observation Methods in the Context of Interactive Research2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 824, p. 1845-1849Conference paper (Refereed)

An interactive research approach was applied in an evaluation of a potential organizational change for mail carriers. Interviews and observations were performed. The results showed that specialization of mail carriers into either mail sorting or mail delivery would lead to more monotonous jobs. Observations showed that sorting mail in a new district takes substantially more time than in a well-known district. An interactive research approach creates a participative collaboration between employers, union representatives and researchers within a project. This influences the choice, planning and execution of methods, of which observation is one. Through the interactive discussions, the planning of how, who, when and where to perform the observations can be improved. This contributes to creating better opportunities to obtain valid results. The use of video recordings enables joint analysis, which contributes to higher acceptance of outcomes and results. The overall conclusion is that the combination of an interactive approach and observation methods is a way to improve both methodological validity and higher validity of the results in addition to higher acceptance of the results and subsequent decisions.

• 35.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
Smart work clothes give better health - Through improved work technique, work organization and production technology2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 820, p. 515-519Conference paper (Refereed)

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) constitute a major health problem for employees, and the economic consequences are substantial for the individuals, companies and the society. The ageing population creates a need for jobs to be sustainable so that employees can stay healthy and work longer. Prevention of MSD risks therefore needs to become more efficient, and more effective tools are thus needed for risk management. The use of smart work clothes is a way to automate data collection instead of manual observation. The aim of this paper is to describe a new smart work clothes system that is under development, and to discuss future opportunities using new and smart technology for prevention of work injuries. The system consists of a garment with textile sensors woven into the fabric for sensing heart rate and breathing. Tight and elastic first layer work wear is the basis for these sensors, and there are also pockets for inertial measurement units in order to measure movements and postures. The measurement data are sent wireless to a tablet or a mobile telephone for analysis. Several employees can be followed for a representative time period in order to assess a particular job and its workplace. Secondly, the system may be used for individuals to practice their work technique. The system also gives relevant information to a coach who can give feedback to the employees of how to improve their work technique. Thirdly, the data analysis may also give information to production engineers and managers regarding the risks. The information will support decisions on the type of actions needed, the body parts that are critical and the emergency of taking action.

• 36.
Karolinska Inst, Dept Pediat, Stockholm, Sweden..
Umea Univ, Dept Community Med & Rehabil, Forens Med, Umea, Sweden.;Natl Board Forens Med, Stockholm, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Pediat & Neonatol, Stockholm, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Med Eth, Stockholm, Sweden.. Lund Univ, Diagnost Radiol, Lund, Sweden.;Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Neuroradiol, Lund, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Hlth Technol Assessment, Stockholm, Sweden.. Univ Orebro, Univ Hlth Care Res Ctr, Fac Med & Hlth, Child & Adolecent Psychiat, Orebro, Sweden.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Human Communication Science.
Traumatic shaking: The role of the triad in medical investigations of suspected traumatic shaking2018In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 107, p. 3-23Article, review/survey (Refereed)

The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assesment of Social Services (SBU) is an independent national authority, tasked by the government with assessing methods used in health, medical and dental services and social service interventions from a broad perspective, covering medical, economic, ethical and social aspects. The language in SBU's reports are adjusted to a wide audience. SBU's Board of Directors has approved the conclusions in this report. The systematic review showed the following graded results: There is limited scientific evidence that the triad (Three components of a whole. The triad associated with SBS usually comprises subdural haematoma, retinal haemorrhages and encephalopathy.) and therefore, its components can be associated with traumatic shaking (low-quality evidence). There is insufficient scientific evidence on which to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the triad in identifying traumatic shaking (very low-quality evidence). Limited scientific evidence (low-quality evidence) represents a combined assessment of studies of high or moderate quality which disclose factors that markedly weaken the evidence. It is important to note that limited scientific evidence for the reliability of a method or an effect does not imply complete lack of scientific support. Insufficient scientific evidence (very low-quality evidence) represents either a lack of studies or situations when available studies are of low quality or show contradictory results. Evaluation of the evidence was not based on formal grading of the evidence according to GRADE but on an evaluation of the total scientific basis.

• 37.
Max Planck Inst Biophys Chem, Dept Neurobiol, Gottingen, Germany.;Max Delbruck Ctr Mol Med, Berlin Inst Med Syst Biol, Berlin, Germany..
Univ Med Ctr Gottingen, European Neurosci Inst, Synapt Vesicle Dynam Grp, Gottingen, Germany.. Univ Med Ctr Gottingen, European Neurosci Inst, Synapt Vesicle Dynam Grp, Gottingen, Germany.. Sciloop, Hamburg, Germany.. Max Delbruck Ctr Mol Med, Berlin Inst Med Syst Biol, Berlin, Germany.. Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr San Antonio, Dept Biochem & Struct Biol, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA.;Univ Texas Hlth Sci Ctr San Antonio, Ctr Biomed Neurosci, San Antonio, TX 78229 USA.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. Max Planck Inst Biophys Chem, Dept Neurobiol, Gottingen, Germany.. Univ Med Ctr Gottingen, European Neurosci Inst, Synapt Vesicle Dynam Grp, Gottingen, Germany..
Clathrin coat controls synaptic vesicle acidification by blocking vacuolar ATPase activity2018In: eLIFE, E-ISSN 2050-084X, Vol. 7, article id e32569Article in journal (Refereed)

Newly-formed synaptic vesicles (SVs) are rapidly acidified by vacuolar adenosine triphosphatases (vATPases), generating a proton electrochemical gradient that drives neurotransmitter loading. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is needed for the formation of new SVs, yet it is unclear when endocytosed vesicles acidify and refill at the synapse. Here, we isolated clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs) from mouse brain to measure their acidification directly at the single vesicle level. We observed that the ATP-induced acidification of CCVs was strikingly reduced in comparison to SVs. Remarkably, when the coat was removed from CCVs, uncoated vesicles regained ATP-dependent acidification, demonstrating that CCVs contain the functional vATPase, yet its function is inhibited by the clathrin coat. Considering the known structures of the vATPase and clathrin coat, we propose a model in which the formation of the coat surrounds the vATPase and blocks its activity. Such inhibition is likely fundamental for the proper timing of SV refilling.

• 38.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
Stressprevention & Agil transformation: Prevention av organisatoriska rotorsaker till stress genom införandet av det Agila arbetssättet inom en högteknologisk multinationell svensk koncern2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Background: The Swedish Royal School of Technology (KTH) was hired to conduct a pilot study project on stress prevention, "Stress Prevention Project" in a Swedish high-tech global manufacturing company with headquarters in Sweden. The aim was to identify the root causes of stress among employees at the organizational level and to offer a way to prevent the root causes. The initiative to implement the project came from the HR department in the company. The occupational health department had not been able to lower the costs of sickness and rehabilitation. One of nine divisions was included in this evaluation study. The project was carried out during the years of 2012-2014, and three quantitative stress measurements were carried out using the modern working environment form “Modern Work Life” based of knowledge from KTH and designed by Metodicum. The present study has evaluated the root causes of the division's stress. In the division, it was stated that the risk areas that the division had to work with were: resources, demands, control, support but also leadership and reorganization with implementing the Agile methods (autonomous work) in the form of. The aim was to improve the psychosocial occupational health and to make the production work more efficient. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of stress preventive measures in one of the nine divisions (that were included in the overall project) and the effect of implementing the Agile methods (autonomous work) in the organization. Limitations: The evaluation is restricted to one of the nine divisions. Method: The method is a quantitative and qualitative case study, with a narrative approach. The study includes a division with 200 employees of which data was collected from 18 of these employees in two focus groups interviews. Materials have also been collected from interviews with the division's HR director, section leader, head of unit and head of the organization's business health. The evaluation is based on qualitative data, which were obtained through 3 single interviews and 4 focus group interviews and participant observation. Quantitative data were obtained through three different measurements (between 2012-14). The quantitative data were compared and analyzed with the qualitative data in order to understand the results up to the final measurement 3 (2014).

Results: The evaluation of the stress prevention – where the focus was to prevent risk areas including demands, develop resources, control, support and also leadership – showed that introducing and using the Agile working principles had had a significant positive effect on all the risk areas. Additionally, this change in the organization contributed to positive results regarding the efficiency of the production process; a reduction of working hours from 12 months to 2 weeks of action at the same result. The absence due to illness and rehabilitation has been decreasing from 4 % to 0,5-1% right after introducing the Agile methods in the division. However, the results also showed no improvement regarding some other working environment; as conflicts and bullying persisted. This may be due to how the reorganization of the groups was done. It should be clarified that the outcomes may be influenced by the extensive reorganization that took place in connection with the stress prevention project and the introduction of the agile approach.

Conclusions - The stress prevention could not have been done efficiently due to other on-going reorganizations in the company and the staff has not been able to follow the recommendation for efficient stress-prevention due to lack of support from the headquarter. That created a crisis in the stress prevention-project group. The agile methods seem to have had a significant good result in all risk areas as resources, demands, control, support and also leadership and the absence has decreased from 4 to 0,5 %. Due to the agile methods have the productions process been shorter from 12 months to 2 weeks.

• 39.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics.
Prototyputveckling för skalbar motor med förståelse för naturligt språk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Natural Language Understanding is a field that is part of Natural Language Processing. Big improvements have been made in the broad field of Natural Language Understanding during the past two decades. One big contribution to this is improvement is Neural Networks, a mathematical model inspired by biological brains. Natural Language Understanding is used in fields that require deeper understanding by applications. Google translate, Google search engine and grammar/spelling check are some examples of applications requiring deeper understanding.

Thing Launcher is an application developed by A Great Thing AB. Thing Launcher is an application capable of managing other applications with different parameters. Some examples of parameters the user can use are geographic position and time. The user can as an example control what song will be played when you get home or order an Uber when you arrive to a certain destination. It is possible to control Thing Launcher today by text input. A Great Thing AB needs help developing a prototype capable of understanding text input and speech. The meaning of scalable is that it should be possible to develop, add functions and applications with as little impact as possible on up time and performance of the service. A comparison of suitable algorithms, tools and frameworks has been made in this thesis in order research what it takes to develop a scalable engine with the natural language understanding and then build a prototype from this gathered information. A theoretical comparison was made between Hidden Markov Models and Neural Networks. The results showed that Neural Networks are superior in the field of natural language understanding. The tests made in this thesis indicated that high accuracy could be achieved using neural networks. TensorFlow framework was chosen because it has many different types of neural network implemented in C/C++ ready to be used with Python and alsoand for the wide compatibility with mobile devices.  The prototype should be able to identify voice commands. The prototype has two important components called Command tagger, which is going to identify which application the user wants to control and NER tagger, which is the going to identify what the user wants to do. To calculate the accuracy, two types of tests, one for each component, was executed several times to calculate how often the components guessed right after each training iteration. Each training iteration consisted of giving the components thousands of sentences to guess and giving them feedback by then letting them know the right answers. With the help of feedback, the components were molded to act right in situations like the training. The tests after the training process resulted with the Command tagger guessing right 94% of the time and the NER tagger guessing right 96% of the time.

The built-in software in Android was used for speech recognition. This is a function that converts sound waves to text. A server-based solution with REST interface was developed to make the engine scalability.

This thesis resulted with a working prototype that can be used to further developed into a scalable engine.

• 40.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
Optimering av selektivplaner och dessbetydelse för samhället2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

In case of build out and rebuilding electricity grids, the electrical characteristicschange. This means that protection features may need to be adjusted to suit theelectrical grids’ new characteristics. Adjustments may lead to loss of selectivity betweenprotective relays. Selectivity means that only the protection device closest tothe fault break the current, so only the smallest possible part of the electrical gridgets disconnected. To assure selectivity, selective tripping schedule is created andprotective relays are adjusted if needed. Rotebro substation in Sollentuna is ownedand operated by Sollentuna Energi & Miljö (SEOM). The substation is facing rebuildingand its selective tripping schedule needs to be reviewed.Since the problem is that selectivity between the protective relays needs to bechecked the goal is to create a selective tripping schedule for Rotebro substation.This is based on the substation protective settings and the connected electricalgrids characteristics. The thesis resulted in a model of Rotebro substation createdin the computer program PSS Sincal. From this a selective tripping schedule weregenerated that shows that small adjustments of the protective relays can be made.A general analysis was also conducted which shows that a selective tripping scheduleis of great importance to the society.

• 41.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC.
SLB Consulting, Newbiggin On Lune, Cumbria, England.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Centres, Swedish Aerospace Physiology Centre, SAPC. Jozef Stefan Inst, Dept Automat Biocybernet & Robot, Ljubljana, Slovenia.;Simon Fraser Univ, Dept Biomed Physiol & Kinesiol, Burnaby, BC, Canada..
Indices of Increased Decompression Stress Following Long-Term Bed Rest2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 442Article in journal (Refereed)

Human extravehicular activity (EVA) is essential to space exploration and involves risk of decompression sickness (DCS). On Earth, the effect of microgravity on physiological systems is simulated in an experimental model where subjects are confined to a 6 degrees head-down bed rest (HDBR). This model was used to investigate various resting and exercise regimen on the formation of venous gas emboli (VGE), an indicator of decompression stress, post-hyperbaric exposure. Eight healthy male subjects participating in a bed rest regimen also took part in this study, which incorporated five different hyperbaric exposure (HE) interventions made before, during and after the HDBR. Interventions i-iv were all made with the subjects lying in 6 degrees HD position. They included (C1) resting control, (C2) knee-bend exercise immediately prior to HE, (T1) HE during the fifth week of the 35-day HDBR period, (C3) supine cycling exercise during the HE. In intervention (C4), subjects remained upright and ambulatory. The HE protocol followed the Royal Navy Table 11 with 100 min spent at 18 m (280 kPa), with decompression stops at 6 m for 5 min, and at 3 m for 15 min. Post-HE, regular precordial Doppler audio measurements were made to evaluate any VGE produced post-dive. VGE were graded according to the Kisman Masurel scale. The number of bubbles produced was low in comparison to previous studies using this profile [Kisman integrated severity score (KISS) ranging from 0-1], and may be because subjects were young, and lay supine during both the HE and the 2 h measurement period post-HE for interventions i-iv. However, the HE during the end of HDBR produced significantly higher maximum bubble grades and KISS score than the supine control conditions (p < 0.01). In contrast to the protective effect of pre-dive exercise on bubble production, a prolonged period of bed rest prior to a HE appears to promote the formation of post-decompression VGE. This is in contrast to the absence of DCS observed during EVA. Whether this is due to a difference between hypo- and hyperbaric decompression stress, or that the HDBR model is a not a good model for decompression sensitivity during microgravity conditions will have to be elucidated in future studies.

• 42.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. Sabanci Univ, Fac Engn & Nat Sci, Mechatron Engn Program, Istanbul, Turkey.
Numerical study of cavitating flow in orifices and its effect on spray characteristics2018In: Journal of Hydrodynamics, ISSN 1001-6058, E-ISSN 1000-4874, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 908-919Article in journal (Refereed)

The bubbly flow regime inside orifices has significant effects on several applications, and studying its trend along an orifice could be helpful in identifying the flow mechanism in various situations. The flow regime inside an orifice depends on the situation which has been specified for the orifice. Orifice geometry has a considerable effect on bubbly flow in injectors. Meanwhile, spray characteristics are influenced by the fuel flow inside an orifice, which has strong effects on the mixture of fuel-air. In this study, spray characteristics are studied for different values of the orifice angle. The cavitation phenomenon which occurs inside an orifice varies in intensity and patterns at different angles of the orifice and consequently has diverse effects on spray characteristics. The governing equations are solved by the SIMPLE algorithm. The spray flow is modeled by the discrete droplet method (DDM), the droplet breakup is modeled by the WAVE model, and the primary breakup is modeled by the DIESEL BREAK UP model. In order to generate cavitation phenomenon inside orifices and investigate its effect on spray characteristics, the angle of orifice with respect to the injector body is varied and the problem is studied for different angles of orifice.

• 43. Ghorbani, Morteza
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
Intensifying cavitating flows in microfluidic devices with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) microbubbles2018In: Physics of Fluids, Vol. 30, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)

Cavitation and the energy associated with the collapse of resulting cavitation bubbles constitute an important research subject. The collapse of the hydrodynamic cavitation bubbles at the outlet of the flow elements leads to a high energy release and generates localized shock waves and a large temperature rise on exposed surfaces. The concept of “hydrodynamic cavitation on chip” is an emerging topic which emphasizes phase change phenomena in microscale and their utilizations in energy and biomedical applications. This study is aimed to investigate the potential of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) Microbubbles (MBs) to generate cavitation bubbles and to evaluate their effects on flow regimes and energy dissipation. For this, three different microchannel configurations with different roughness elements were considered. The structural side wall and surface roughened channels were fabricated along with the smooth channel according to the techniques adopted from semiconductor based microfabrication. The upstream pressure varied from 1 to 7 MPa, and the flow patterns were recorded and analyzed using a high-speed camera. The pressure was locally measured at three locations along the microfluidic devices to determine the conditions for fully developed cavitating flows. The results were compared to the pure water case, and different trends for the cavitating flow pattern transitions were obtained for the water-PVA MB solution case. Accordingly, the twin cavity clouds extended to the end of the side wall roughened channel at a lower upstream pressure for the case of PVA MBs, while the smooth and surface roughened channels do not demonstrate this flow pattern. In addition, the cavitation number has the lowest values under the same working conditions for the case of PVA MBs. Moreover, the impact pressure generated by the bubble collapse inside the side wall roughened channel for the case of PVA MBs was notably higher than that for pure water.

• 44.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Medical Imaging. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory MWL. Karolinska Institutet (KI), CLINTEC – Division of Medical Imaging and Technology.
Acoustic Response of a Novel Class of Pickering Stabilized Perfluorodroplets2019Conference paper (Refereed)

Introduction

Acoustic Droplet Vaporization (ADV) is a phase change phenomenon in which the liquid state, in the form of droplets, is converted to gas as a result of bursts in the excited ultrasound field. Having a wide range of medical applications, ADV has drawn considerable attention in imaging [1], diagnosis and critical medical treatment [2]. Therefore, benefitting from its broad potentials, with the consideration of its capability in localized noninvasive energy exposure, it is possible to utilize its effect in different medical applications from targeted drug delivery [3] to embolotherapy [4].

Apart from the droplet characterization and ADV effectiveness on the applied region, the physics of ADV and particularly the ultrasound analysis is an essential parameter in the initiation of the vaporization. This part, which is related to acoustic wave physics, implies that ADV is mostly dependent on ultrasound pressure, frequency and temperature. In this sense, Miles et al. [5] tried to find incident negative pressure - called as ADV threshold- which is necessary for the induction of nucleation. It was successfully shown that the negative pressure required for the nucleation prior to collapse can be determined via perturbation analysis of a compressible inviscid flow around a droplet for various frequencies and diameters. In addition, the fluid medium which constitutes the droplet emulsion and the surrounding fluid constructs a significant field within ADV. In this regard, there are many studies which illustrated that the diameter of the droplets subjected to the acoustic waves undergoes a significant expansion of 5 to 6 times of their regular sizes [6-8].

In this study, a new type of pickering stabilized perfluorodroplets (PFC) was examined under the effect of the different acoustic parameters to evaluate its potential in the acoustic droplet vaporization process. To assess the pressure effects on the stabilized droplets, the acoustic power within the ultrasound tests was varied and the phase trasnition was characterized according to the experimental conditions. Opticell® was utilized as the transparent device to visualize the droplets, which were exposed to the acoustic waves with the aid of the microscope and multi-well microplate.

Methods

Materials and emulsion preparation

Perfluoropentane (PFC5) was purchased from Apollo Scientific (City, U.K.). Bleached sulfite pulp (from Nordic Paper Seffle AB, Sweden) was used in the production of the cationic cellulose nanofibers (CNFs). The CNF suspension (1.32 wt%) were prepared as described previously [9]. The CNFs had a dimension of 3.9 ± 0.8 nm in width and a length in the micrometer range. The amount of cationic groups was 0.13 mmol per g fiber, obtained from conductometric titration [9]. A suspension of CNF (0.28 wt%) was prepared by diluting the stock CNF with MilliQ-water (pH of diluted CNF suspension was 9.5). The suspension was treated with ultra-sonication at amplitude of 90% for 180 s (Sonics, Vibracell W750). The suspension was brought to room temperature. An amount of 36 g of the 0.28 wt% CNF suspension was mixed with 1 g of PFC5. The mixture was sonicated for 60s at an amplitude of 80% (under ice-cooling) to obtain the CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets.

The protocol for the acoustic tests

100 μL of CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets were added to 1900 μL of deionized water in order to prepare the solution which were exposed to the ultrasound waves. The droplet sample, diluted 1:19 in distilled water was introduced to the Opticell® and the acoustic waves at a fixed frequency and different powers were applied to the trageted area inside the Opticell® which is located inside a water bath. The ultrasound triggered sample then was placed under a 20X magnification objective of upright transmitted light microscope (ECLIPSE Ci-S, Nikon, Tokyo, Japan).

The acoustic tests were performed using high-power tone burst pulser-receiver (SNAP Mark IV,  Ritec, Inc., Warwick, RI, USA) equipped with a transducer (V382-SU Olympus NDT, Waltham, MA ) operating at the frequency of 3.5 MHz. The emulsion of CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets were exposed to the power range which has the acsending trend from -30 to 0 dB at the given frequency. To investigate the droplet size variations at each power between, the droplets were collected inside the Opticell® and the droplet diameter was measured with the aid of the ImageJ software (version 1.50b, National institutes of health, USA) to determine the concentration and size distribution. The Gaussian distribution is ploted with mean value and standad deviation recover from the experimental data. An in-house image edge detection MATLAB™ script (MathWorks Inc., Natick, MA) were applied to analyze the images obtained from the microscope and provides the size and volume distributions.

Results

The size of PFP droplets is an important parameter to controll in the therapeutic applications. Here, a new type of Pickering stabilized perfluorodroplets were prepared where the PFP/water interface was stabilized with cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and the size of the droplets could easily be controlled by varying the amount of CNF added.  The resulting droplets were investigated using a single crystal transducer. Apart from the medical applications, controlling the droplet size is important from droplet dynamics point of view, becausethe interfacial energy is crucial in the assumption of the critical nucleus radius. Therefore, it is possible to estimate the negative peak pressure required for the phase transition once the droplet is controlled and interfacial energy deposited inside and on the surface of the droplet are balanced.

According to the results in Figure 1, there is an appreciable rise of the size of the droplets after ultrasound waves exposure, particularly at -8 dB power. The experiments were performed for 30 seconds at different powers ranging from -30 to 0 dB, while the frequency was kept constant at 3.5 MHz, burst width in cycles was selected as 12 and repetition rate was set to 100. Images included in Figure 1 demonstrate major transitions in the intervals at -16, -8 and 0 dB. As shown in this figure, the droplet size increased with the power rise and more bubbles with bigger sizes appears at higher powers. This outcome implies the significant role of the applied frequency and power on the phase shift and subsequent mechanisms as a result of the acoustic wave exposure on the new nontoxic and incompatible droplet type.

Figure 2 shows the average number of droplets and volume distribution at the corresponding powers to the Figure 1. It is shown that while the average diameter of the droplets is around 3.5 µm, the generated bubbles, as a result of the ADV, reaches up to 15 µm at the highest possible power. For each set of experiment (corresponding to a given power) 32 images were taken, thus, to reduce the errors and obtain the standard deviation (approximately 0.8 for all the cases), the presented diagrams for the droplet distributions exhibits the mean value for all of the acquired images. Therefore, it is shown that the droplet emulsion exhibited in NO US in Figure 2, which shows the regular view and distribution range of the CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets at the room temperature, experiences ADV process with the diameter rise of about 5 times at the highest power when the frequency is fixed at 3.5 MHz.

Conclusions

The results show that there is appreciable rise on the size of the droplets after ultrasound waves exposure at a fixed frequency. Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) was illustrated at different powers for CNF-stabilized PFC5 droplets as a new class of pickering stabilized perfluorodroplets with the increase in the size of the droplets and following phase trasition to bubbles. Diameter increase of 5 times were obtained after the ultrasound exposure indicating the efficiency of the suggested droplets for the ADV process and therapeutic applications.

References

[1] Arena CB, Novell A, Sheeran PS, Puett C, Moyer LC, Dayton PA, Dual-Frequency Acoustic Droplet Vaporization Detection for Medical Imaging 2015, IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control, 62: 9.

[2] Kripfgans OD, Fowlkes JB, Miller DL, Eldevik OP, Carson PL, Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications 2000, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 26:1177–1189.

[3] Kang ST, Yeh CK, Intracellular Acoustic Droplet Vaporization in a Single Peritoneal Macrophage for Drug Delivery Applications 2011, Langmuir, 27:13183–13188.

[4] Zhu M, Jiang L, Fabiilli ML, Zhang A, Fowlkes JB, Xu LX, Treatment of murine tumors using acoustic droplet vaporization-enhanced high intensity focused 2013, Ultrasound Phys. Med. Biol, 58:6179–6191.

[5] Miles CJ, Doering CR, Kripfgans OD, Nucleation pressure threshold in acoustic droplet vaporization 2016, Journal of Applied Physics, 120:034903.

[6] Sheeran PS, Wong VP, Luois S, McFarland RJ, Ross WD, Feingold S, Matsunaga TO, Dayton PA, Decafluorobutane as a phase-change contrast agent for low-energy extravascular ultrasonic imaging 2011, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 37:1518–1530.

[7] Kripfgans OD, Fowlkes JB, Miller DL, Eldevik OP, Carson PL, Acoustic droplet vaporization for therapeutic and diagnostic applications 2000, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 26:1177–1189.

[8] Kang S, Huang Y, Yeh C, Characterization of acoustic droplet vaporization for control of bubble generation under flow conditions 2014, Ultrasound Med. Biol, 40:551–561.

[9] Svagan AJ, Benjamins JW, Al-Ansari Z, Shalom DB, Müllertz A, Wågberg L, Löbmann K, Solid cellulose nanofiber based foams–towards facile design of sustained drug delivery systems 2016, J. Control Release, 244:74–82 (Part A).

• 45.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics and Logistics.
Jämförelse av artificiella neurala nätverksalgoritmerför klassificering av omdömen2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

With large amount of data in the form of customer reviews, it could be time consuming to manually go through each review and decide if its sentiment is positive or negative. This thesis have been done to automatically classify client reviews to determine if a review is positive or negative. This was dealt with by machine learning. Three different deep neural network was tested on greater and lesser datasets, and compared with the help of two different frameworks, TensorFlow and Keras. Different embedding methods were tested on the neural networks. The best combination of a neural network, a framework and anembedding was the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) which used the word embedding method Word2Vec, was written in Keras framework and gave an accuracy of approximately 88.87% with a deviation of approximately 0.4%. CNN scored a better result in all of the tests in comparison with the two other neural networks, Recurrent NeuralNetwork (RNN) and Convolutional Recurrent Neural Network (CRNN).

• 46.
Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Unit Audiol, Alfred Nobels Alle 10, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
Sorbonne Univ Paris, Inst Pasteur, INSERM, Unite Genet & Physiol Audit, Paris, France.;CNRS, Paris, France.. Washington State Univ, Vancouver, WA USA.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Neuronic Engineering. Univ Autonoma Queretaro, Clin Sistema Nervioso, Lab Neurobiol & Bioingn Celular, Santiago De Queretaro, Mexico.. Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Unit Audiol, Alfred Nobels Alle 10, S-14183 Stockholm, Sweden..
Temporal information in tones, broadband noise, and natural vocalizations is conveyed by differential spiking responses in the superior paraolivary nucleus2018In: European Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0953-816X, E-ISSN 1460-9568, Vol. 48, no 4, p. 2030-2049Article in journal (Refereed)

Communication sounds across all mammals consist of multiple frequencies repeated in sequence. The onset and offset of vocalizations are potentially important cues for recognizing distinct units, such as phonemes and syllables, which are needed to perceive meaningful communication. The superior paraolivary nucleus (SPON) in the auditory brainstem has been implicated in the processing of rhythmic sounds. Here, we compared how best frequency tones (BFTs), broadband noise (BBN), and natural mouse calls elicit onset and offset spiking in the mouse SPON. The results demonstrate that onset spiking typically occurs in response to BBN, but not. BFT stimulation, while spiking at the sound offset occurs for both stimulus types. This effect of stimulus bandwidth on spiking is consistent with two of the established inputs to the SPON from the octopus cells (onset spiking) and medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (offset spiking). Natural mouse calls elicit two main spiking peaks. The first spiking peak, which is weak or absent with BFT stimulation, occurs most consistently during the call envelope, while the second spiking peak occurs at the call offset. This suggests that the combined spiking activity in the SPON elicited by vocalizations reflects the entire envelope, that is, the coarse amplitude waveform. Since the output from the SPON is purely inhibitory, it is speculated that, at the level of the inferior colliculus, the broadly tuned first peak may improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the subsequent, more call frequency-specific peak. Thus, the SPON may provide a dual inhibition mechanism for tracking phonetic boundaries in social-vocal communication.

• 47.
Univ Med Ctr, Inst Clin Neurophysiol, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
Univ Primorska, Fac Hlth, Izola, Slovenia.. Univ Med Ctr, Inst Clin Neurophysiol, Ljubljana, Slovenia.. Univ Med Ctr, Inst Clin Neurophysiol, Ljubljana, Slovenia.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. Jozef Stefan Inst, Dept Automat Biocybernet & Robot, Ljubljana, Slovenia..
BED REST AND HYPOXIC EXPOSURE AFFECT SLEEP ARCHITECTURE AND BREATHING STABILITY2017In: Sleep Medicine, ISSN 1389-9457, E-ISSN 1878-5506, Vol. 40, p. E80-E80Article in journal (Other academic)
• 48.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
Univ Texas Rio Grande Valley, Sch Med, Edinburg, TX USA.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology. Royal Inst Technol, Environm Physiol, Stockholm, Sweden.. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
Postural and Daily Variations in the Single-Breath Diffusion Capacity of the Lungs for Carbon Monoxide2018In: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, ISSN 1073-449X, E-ISSN 1535-4970, Vol. 197Article in journal (Other academic)
• 49.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Environmental Physiology.
G Tolerance During Open- vs. Closed-Loop G-Time Control.2018In: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance, ISSN 2375-6314, E-ISSN 2375-6322, Vol. 89, no 9, p. 798-804Article in journal (Refereed)

BACKGROUND: +Gz tolerance is traditionally determined in centrifuges with open-loop G control, i.e., the centrifuge is under operator control (open loop), and thus the test subject is unable to influence the Gz load. In modern centrifuges, however, the subject is commonly able to continuously control the Gz load (closed loop). It is a widespread opinion among fighter pilots that +Gz tolerance is higher under closed- than open-loop G control. The aims were to investigate whether +Gz tolerance is higher in closed- than open-loop G control, and whether it is possible to use closed-loop G control during precise determination of +Gz tolerance.

METHODS: Relaxed +Gz tolerance was determined in eight men during rapid Gz-onset rate (ROR) under three conditions: 1) OL-VFB, open loop with visual feedback; 2) OL-NFB, open loop with no visual feedback; and 3) CL, closed loop. Straining +Gz tolerance was determined in 10 men during ROR in OL and CL conditions.

RESULTS: Relaxed +Gz tolerance did not differ between CL (3.66 Gz), OL-VFB (3.70 Gz) and OL-NFB (3.64 Gz). Straining +Gz tolerance was similar in the CL (8.5 Gz) and OL (8.6 Gz) conditions. In the CL condition, the Gz load varied substantially and was on average lower than in the OL conditions, at any stipulated G-time profile.

DISCUSSION: There is no systematic difference in relaxed or straining +Gz tolerance as determined in closed- vs. open-loop G-controlled systems. During closed-loop control, precision and reproducibility are too low to recommend it for accurate determination of relaxed G tolerance.Grönkvist M, Levin B, Eiken O. G tolerance during open- vs. closed-loop G-time control. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(9):798-804.

• 50.
Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Ostersund Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Ostersund, Sweden..
KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics. KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Health Informatics. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Obstet & Gynecol, Stockholm, Sweden.. Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Physiol, Stockholm, Sweden..
Validation of a computerised algorithm to quantify fetal heart rate deceleration area: An observational study2018In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528, Vol. 125, p. 54-54Article in journal (Other academic)
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