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  • 1. Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Diaz-Olivazrez, Jose A.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Seoane, Fernando
    Teriö, Heikki
    Mediavilla Martinez, Cesar
    Aso, Santiago
    Tiemann, Christian
    Big Data & Wearable Sensors Ensuring Safety and Health @Work2017In: GLOBAL HEALTH 2017, The Sixth International Conference on Global Health Challenges, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    —Work-related injuries and disorders constitute a major burden and cost for employers, society in general and workers in particular. We@Work is a project that aims to develop an integrated solution for promoting and supporting a safe and healthy working life by combining wearable technologies, Big Data analytics, ergonomics, and information and communication technologies. The We@Work solution aims to support the worker and employer to ensure a healthy working life through pervasive monitoring for early warnings, prompt detection of capacity-loss and accurate risk assessments at workplace as well as self-management of a healthy working life. A multiservice platform will allow unobtrusive data collection at workplaces. Big Data analytics will provide real-time information useful to prevent work injuries and support healthy working life

  • 2. Babapour, Maral
    et al.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Policies in Activity-based Flexible Offices: ‘I am sloppy with clean-desking. We don’t really know the rules.’2018In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are offices with unassigned desks that provide a variety of workspaces. This paper presents desk-sharing and speech rules identified in A-FOs in four Swedish organisations, the emergence of and compliance with these rules, and their consequences for work conditions. Data collection involved 105 semi-structured interviews, document analyses, and observations. The identified rules were: (1) to remove belongings, (2) temporal restrictions on using the same workstations, (3) temporal restrictions on using scarce zones, (4) restrictions on verbal interactions, and (5) restrictions on phone conversations. The cases with extensive user involvement in their planning process had explicit unambiguous rules. A better compliance with rules occurred when (i) the employees were well-prepared and had a unified understanding regarding how and why to follow the rules, (ii) the rules were explicitly communicated and were regarded as easy to follow, and (iii) following the rules facilitated work and improved work conditions.

  • 3.
    Berglund, Martina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. HELIX Competence Centre and Division of Logistics and Quality Management, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arman, Oscar
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    From Safety I to Safety II: Applying an HTO Perspective on Supervisory Work Within Aviation2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 558-565Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In aviation, there is a strong focus on safety to prevent accidents. This paper deals with how supervisory authorities in aviation can apply a Safety II perspective. In particular, the aim is to analyze how the concept of HTO (Humans, Technology, Organization) is related to a possible shift from Safety I to Safety II within supervisory work within aviation. Data for this case study research was collected through semi-structured interviews with inspectors at the civil aviation authority in Sweden. The study showed that the important building stone of proactivity in Safety II could be promoted by the Safety Management System (SMS), the Safety Performance Indicator, and systems for reporting incidents and near-accidents. These systems constituted examples of Technology. Similarly, the Humans consisted of the inspectors, and the Organization included international and national regulations that the inspectors needed to follow during inspections. In the analysis, it was clear that an internal HTO-perspective could be taken. The study indicated that the shift towards Safety II should first be done within the supervisory authority by applying an internal HTO-perspective. This could later be developed to an external HTO-perspective also including the operator organizations.

  • 4. Dellve, Lotta
    et al.
    Andréasson, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Jutengren, G.
    Hermansson, J.
    How can support resources support sustainable leadership in healthcare?2018In: Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Helix Competence Centre, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Application of the HTO Concept for a Powered Pallet Truck2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 482-485Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Truck drivers suffer work injuries to a higher extent than most other occupations. The HTO concept and the interaction framework were applied in a pre-study leading to a redesign of a new powered pallet truck. The old truck was evaluated using a literature study, interviews, observations, injury statistics and benchmarking, as part of the HTO analysis. The analyses showed that the driver often stood on the rear part of the platform with the heels outside the platform, making them vulnerable to injury. The injury statistics also showed that drivers of powered pallet trucks had more heel injuries than drivers of other truck types. There were two reasons for this. The steering arm was slightly too long, and the vibration damping was better the further back the drivers stood on the platform. This study led to redesign of the steering arm and platform suspension in the new truck generation. The combination of the HTO concept and the interaction framework supported the analysis in identifying relationships that otherwise would not have been obvious.

  • 6.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Observation Methods in the Context of Interactive Research2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 824, p. 1845-1849Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An interactive research approach was applied in an evaluation of a potential organizational change for mail carriers. Interviews and observations were performed. The results showed that specialization of mail carriers into either mail sorting or mail delivery would lead to more monotonous jobs. Observations showed that sorting mail in a new district takes substantially more time than in a well-known district. An interactive research approach creates a participative collaboration between employers, union representatives and researchers within a project. This influences the choice, planning and execution of methods, of which observation is one. Through the interactive discussions, the planning of how, who, when and where to perform the observations can be improved. This contributes to creating better opportunities to obtain valid results. The use of video recordings enables joint analysis, which contributes to higher acceptance of outcomes and results. The overall conclusion is that the combination of an interactive approach and observation methods is a way to improve both methodological validity and higher validity of the results in addition to higher acceptance of the results and subsequent decisions.

  • 7.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, M.
    Smart work clothes give better health - Through improved work technique, work organization and production technology2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 820, p. 515-519Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) constitute a major health problem for employees, and the economic consequences are substantial for the individuals, companies and the society. The ageing population creates a need for jobs to be sustainable so that employees can stay healthy and work longer. Prevention of MSD risks therefore needs to become more efficient, and more effective tools are thus needed for risk management. The use of smart work clothes is a way to automate data collection instead of manual observation. The aim of this paper is to describe a new smart work clothes system that is under development, and to discuss future opportunities using new and smart technology for prevention of work injuries. The system consists of a garment with textile sensors woven into the fabric for sensing heart rate and breathing. Tight and elastic first layer work wear is the basis for these sensors, and there are also pockets for inertial measurement units in order to measure movements and postures. The measurement data are sent wireless to a tablet or a mobile telephone for analysis. Several employees can be followed for a representative time period in order to assess a particular job and its workplace. Secondly, the system may be used for individuals to practice their work technique. The system also gives relevant information to a coach who can give feedback to the employees of how to improve their work technique. Thirdly, the data analysis may also give information to production engineers and managers regarding the risks. The information will support decisions on the type of actions needed, the body parts that are critical and the emergency of taking action.

  • 8.
    Fritz, Minanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Stressprevention & Agil transformation: Prevention av organisatoriska rotorsaker till stress genom införandet av det Agila arbetssättet inom en högteknologisk multinationell svensk koncern2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Swedish Royal School of Technology (KTH) was hired to conduct a pilot study project on stress prevention, "Stress Prevention Project" in a Swedish high-tech global manufacturing company with headquarters in Sweden. The aim was to identify the root causes of stress among employees at the organizational level and to offer a way to prevent the root causes. The initiative to implement the project came from the HR department in the company. The occupational health department had not been able to lower the costs of sickness and rehabilitation. One of nine divisions was included in this evaluation study. The project was carried out during the years of 2012-2014, and three quantitative stress measurements were carried out using the modern working environment form “Modern Work Life” based of knowledge from KTH and designed by Metodicum. The present study has evaluated the root causes of the division's stress. In the division, it was stated that the risk areas that the division had to work with were: resources, demands, control, support but also leadership and reorganization with implementing the Agile methods (autonomous work) in the form of. The aim was to improve the psychosocial occupational health and to make the production work more efficient. Aim: The aim was to evaluate the effect of stress preventive measures in one of the nine divisions (that were included in the overall project) and the effect of implementing the Agile methods (autonomous work) in the organization. Limitations: The evaluation is restricted to one of the nine divisions. Method: The method is a quantitative and qualitative case study, with a narrative approach. The study includes a division with 200 employees of which data was collected from 18 of these employees in two focus groups interviews. Materials have also been collected from interviews with the division's HR director, section leader, head of unit and head of the organization's business health. The evaluation is based on qualitative data, which were obtained through 3 single interviews and 4 focus group interviews and participant observation. Quantitative data were obtained through three different measurements (between 2012-14). The quantitative data were compared and analyzed with the qualitative data in order to understand the results up to the final measurement 3 (2014).

    Results: The evaluation of the stress prevention – where the focus was to prevent risk areas including demands, develop resources, control, support and also leadership – showed that introducing and using the Agile working principles had had a significant positive effect on all the risk areas. Additionally, this change in the organization contributed to positive results regarding the efficiency of the production process; a reduction of working hours from 12 months to 2 weeks of action at the same result. The absence due to illness and rehabilitation has been decreasing from 4 % to 0,5-1% right after introducing the Agile methods in the division. However, the results also showed no improvement regarding some other working environment; as conflicts and bullying persisted. This may be due to how the reorganization of the groups was done. It should be clarified that the outcomes may be influenced by the extensive reorganization that took place in connection with the stress prevention project and the introduction of the agile approach.

    Conclusions - The stress prevention could not have been done efficiently due to other on-going reorganizations in the company and the staff has not been able to follow the recommendation for efficient stress-prevention due to lack of support from the headquarter. That created a crisis in the stress prevention-project group. The agile methods seem to have had a significant good result in all risk areas as resources, demands, control, support and also leadership and the absence has decreased from 4 to 0,5 %. Due to the agile methods have the productions process been shorter from 12 months to 2 weeks. 

  • 9.
    Joacim, Levander
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Säkerhet, risker och stress: en deskriptiv fallstudie av ramppersonalens arbetsmiljö2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study had the standpoint in the terms that refers to ground handlers on a Swedish airport. The risks involved in loading and unloading the goods. The issue grew as the knowledge increased about the Human, Technology and Organisation (HTO). The part of the background content elements and concepts touching stress, concept of safety, safety at the airports. The aim of this study was to describe if the safety, risks eventually influences ground handlers by stress linked to loading and unloading of aircrafts. To picture the association between them, HTO and demand-control-support perspective where used. The study didn´t cover goals of interventions. The study design in use where the descriptive case study. Methods in use where individual interviewing, focus group interviewing, participant observation with so called full involvement on the ramp. Selection of participant where based on staff on duty. Member of the leadership did de selection guided by the scheduled interviews. The study comprehended the importance of working schedule, organisation issues, deliberately assumption of risk and a high risk of accident. Support from nearest and highest leadership was high. There were indications about the importance of social support and sense of security in the team. Most concerned newly employed. The importance of the type of aircraft, problems connected with narrow bodied aircrafts. Keep on the work to change this type of aircraft, above all else on nightly goods aircrafts will radically improve the ergonomics and safety. Next scientific work suggested to look at the connection between the equipment used by load, unloading and stress. When the type of aircrafts has been changed look at the impact on stress, risks and safety. Also suggested scientific work to look at the organisation of work in and between the team. How the organisation works out practically on the ramp, between ground handlers and custom service and between ground handlers and the leadership. Next scientific work could also look closer to the hypothetical causal model described in this work. Aimed to enhance and develop the systematic work environment management (SAM).

  • 10.
    Jutengren, Göran
    et al.
    Department of Work Life and Social Welfare, University of Borås, Sweden .
    Jaldestad, Ellen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Department of Sociology and Work Science, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Andrea
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    The potential importance of social capital and job crafting for work engagement and work satisfaction among health care employees2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Recent research in health care has sought to find out how employee health and engagement can best be promoted. There is longitudinal evidence that social capital play an important role for employers’ work engagement. In fact, social capital is an important interpersonal resource that predicts not only work engagement, but also job satisfaction. Besides social capital, the research literature indicates that job crafting have a potential role in the promotion of work engagement and job satisfaction. There is, however, limited knowledge about the mechanisms with which social capital within work groups is conceptually linked to individual job crafting, job satisfaction and work engagement.

    Aim

    The aim was to examine the intermutual influences of work-group social capital, individuals’ job crafting, work engagement, and job satisfaction.

    Material and methods

    The sample included 240 employees, recruited from 22 health care workplaces in Sweden, who filled in a questionnaire at two points in time (i.e. T1 and T2), 6-8 months apart. Data were analyzed in two steps. First, a longitudinal panel design that tested for effects of T1 work-group social capital on T2 job crafting, work engagement, and job satisfaction respectively were analyzed with a structural regression model that controlled for both temporal and concurrent relations. Second, mediational effects of job crafting were tested following a four-step procedure.

    Results

    The results confirmed that social capital within work groups was predictive of job satisfaction and work engagement in terms of vigor, dedication, and attention. Adding to previous research, the results also showed that social capital was predictive of both cognitive and relational job crafting.

    Relational job crafting had a relatively large mediating effect between social capital and work engagement, whereas the association from social capital to work satisfaction was mediated by cognitive and relational job crafting.

    Conclusions

    Both relational and cognitive job crafting was enhanced by a strong social capital within the work group. As these kinds of crafting also mediated work engagement and work satisfaction, the result show that health care organizations should prioritize aiming to enhance a positive social capital and enable crafting behavior within relational and cognitive crafting.

  • 11.
    Kässi, Jonna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Undersökning av det systematiska arbetsmiljöarbetet hos företag som arbetar med AFS 2001:1: Hur ser behovet av IT-stöd ut?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Companies today are pressed and need to prioritize their primary work tasks which often means that work environment management is hard to maintain or can be seen as an unmotivated cost. To save money and avoid disturbing the daily operations representatives are sometimes chosen to be the link between the end-user and the system developer during the development of a new system. That means that important knowledge and needs aren’t included in the development phase. Poorly designed computer systems can lead to it not being used or the fact that the work environment management becomes suffering. During the development of a computer system it’s important to consider the usability. A system that is built focused on the end-user seems to have a higher level of acceptance at companies.

     

    The purpose of this essay was to identify the needs of computer aid for the systematic work environment management at companies that have previously worked with AFS 2001:1 (Swedish law for systematic work environment management).  The method for this essay mainly consisted of literature studies and interviews with managers and co-workers (alternatively safety representative). Collected data from managers and co-workers were compared and the differences between the companies were analyzed.

     

    Results show that there wasn’t any difference between the data collected from the managers and the co-workers in the same company. This means that participants from the same company had the same view on their work environment management. When the companies were compared to each other there were differences related to the level of knowledge and the ability to pass the knowledge along.

     

    A common factor that was lacking for all companies was that the final step in the systematic work environment management which is control. All companies were good at addressing occupational safety deficiencies that were of the acute nature. Acute cases are something that is detected directly, for example, injuries due to tripping. While long-term deficiencies are seen as major processes with longer implementation periods, such as mapping of declining productivity due to workplace shortcomings.

     

    Conclusion of the results showed that there is a need for a management system with IT support that is user-adapted. It should provide support rather than burden the employer with a load of documentation and administration. Before the design phase of a management system, the purpose and goal are key elements to define with the developer in order to create a user-friendly system.

     

    Something that permeated the results of the survey was that all participants didn’t do any kind of follow-up. Therefore, in future development projects, it is important to take into account that part of the systematic work environment management to ensure that it is not forgotten. This step is an important part of systematic work environment management and goal fulfillment as well as development. Better follow up leads to better decisions.

  • 12.
    Laya, Andrés
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS.
    Markendahl, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Network-centric business models for health, social care and wellbeing solutions in the internet of things2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 103-116Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this multiple case study we analyze solutions based on connected devices in the context of health, social care and wellbeing. Based on the consideration that a solution is a combination of services and products, we build on the notion that business models can be studied at a firm-level and also at a network-level. The network-level analysis is used to motivate the reasons why solutions emerging at the intersection of the healthcare and the ICT industries benefit from collaboration among different actors. We conclude that the firm- and the network-level development of business models provide alignment in the business network and are useful to establish the relation that technological component have with overall solutions. Our findings suggest that some component bring novelty in the final offer without affecting the ongoing operation, while other component aim at improving the internal working processes, with minimal effects on the final offer to end users. We discuss the benefits of a network-level perspective for each case.

  • 13.
    Lu, Ke
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Abtahi, F.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Rödby, K.
    Seoane, F.
    Wearable cardiorespiratory monitoring system for unobtrusive free-living energy expenditure tracking2019In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer, 2019, no 1, p. 433-437Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we want to introduce combined heart rate and respiration monitoring for more accurate energy expenditure tracking on free-living subjects. We have developed a wearable cardiorespiratory monitoring system with unobtrusive heart rate measurement and ventilation estimation function for this purpose. The system is based on a garment with integrated textile electrodes for one-lead electrocardiogram and impedance pneumography measurements. A pilot experiment has been performed to prove the concept and to evaluate the characteristics of heart rate and ventilation estimated by our system in relation to energy expenditure. In the experiment, ventilation shows a better linearity in relation to the energy expenditure at the low intensity region than heart rate. Based on these characteristics, a model combining heart rate and ventilation for energy expenditure estimation is proposed which shows a significantly lower estimation error than the heart rate only model.

  • 14.
    Lu, Ke
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77 Solna, Sweden.
    Yang, Liyun
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Seoane, F.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH). Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77 Solna, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Solnavägen 1, 171 77 Solna, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, K.
    Fusion of heart rate, respiration and motion measurements from a wearable sensor system to enhance energy expenditure estimation2018In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 18, no 9, article id 3092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a new method that integrates heart rate, respiration, and motion information obtained from a wearable sensor system to estimate energy expenditure. The system measures electrocardiography, impedance pneumography, and acceleration from upper and lower limbs. A multilayer perceptron neural network model was developed, evaluated, and compared to two existing methods, with data from 11 subjects (mean age, 27 years, range, 21–65 years) who performed a 3-h protocol including submaximal tests, simulated work tasks, and periods of rest. Oxygen uptake was measured with an indirect calorimeter as a reference, with a time resolution of 15 s. When compared to the reference, the new model showed a lower mean absolute error (MAE = 1.65 mL/kg/min, R2 = 0.92) than the two existing methods, i.e., the flex-HR method (MAE = 2.83 mL/kg/min, R2 = 0.75), which uses only heart rate, and arm-leg HR+M method (MAE = 2.12 mL/kg/min, R2 = 0.86), which uses heart rate and motion information. As indicated, this new model may, in combination with a wearable system, be useful in occupational and general health applications. 

  • 15.
    Markendahl, Jan
    et al.
    KTH. Royal Inst Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lundberg, Stefan
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Movin, Staffan
    Market Technol Ctr, Stockholm, Sweden..
    On the role and potential of IoT in different industries Analysis of actor cooperation and challenges for introduction of new technology2017In: 2017 JOINT 13TH CTTE AND 10TH CMI CONFERENCE ON INTERNET OF THINGS - BUSINESS MODELS, USERS, AND NETWORKS / [ed] Falch, M, IEEE , 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study how IoT technology can be introduced and used in different sectors; industrial IoT, smart energy, smart homes, smart cities, health care and social care, sports and well-being. The research has given increased insights into opportunities and obstacles for the introduction of IoT in different sectors. The main obstacles are considered to be i) specific IoT solutions often tend to be a small part of the overall solution, ii) lack of knowledge about which overall services the IoT solution may be part of, iii) Fragmentation and insufficient scalability, iv) Distrust and hesitation among actors to share data and platforms and finally, v) fear of changing the own business model. The analysis of our cases indicates that most of the challenges occur due to the fact that the solutions initially have been developed using a single firm business model. In order to survive or grow a networked business model is needed.

  • 16.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Occupational Health Services Professionals; skills, needs and experiences shared in a learning network: Co-operative inquiry performed in the manufacturing sector2018Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Work environment conditions can influence individuals, organisations as well as society, and economic consequences can be extensive. The employer is responsible for the work environment,but must engage Occupational Health Services (OHS) or similar if the own competenceis not sufficient. Consequently, the professional skills of OHS providers is an important topic, as the services delivered are aimed at contributing to a good work environment. However, research in this area was scant and there was a call for illumination of what professional skills are needed within OHS. There was also a need to find arenas for knowledge development and sharing within and between occupational safety and health (OS&H) professionals and researchers.

    One aim of this thesis was to gain a deeper knowledge and understanding about professional skills when it comes to OS&H engineers and ergonomists working within the manufacturing sector. A second aim was to gain experiences of using co-operative inquiry in a learning network for OS&H professionals in order to develop professional skills. The thesis is based on three papers, all with a qualitative research approach. The co-operative inquiry method was used to run a learning network for the research. This network consisted of ten OS&H professionals (engineers and ergonomists) employed at in-house as well as external providers of OHS for manufacturing companies, and two researchers. Everyone in the network acted as co-researchers in accordance with the intention of co-operative inquiry. The dialogues at the meetings were analysed with thematic analysis, using six socio-technical elements as themes.

    The results showed that the OS&H engineers and ergonomists in the network wanted to work more preventively in the future. To achieve this, they expressed needs for both theoretically based arguments and communication skills to convince clients about the benefits with this approach. Research based knowledge, practical experience and good examples were shared and reflected on with the purpose of integrating the new knowledge into daily practice. The dialogues at the meetings dealt mainly with topics at an organisation level rather than details and individual level. The dialogues focused on e.g. co-operation in teams within the OHS firms and with different stakeholders at the client companies, integration of OS&H management into existing processes, participation from early stages in design and change processes, the use of risk assessment tools and, finally, communication skills.

    The co-operative inquiry method was suitable, as the network functioned as an arena for reflective learning.

  • 17.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Vänje, Annika
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Kollegor eller konkurrenter? : Samverkan i nätverk mellan arbetsmiljöingenjörer, ergonomer samt forskare2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Vänje, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Occupational safety and health professionals’ skills – A call for system understanding?: Experiences from a co-operative inquiry within the manufacturing sector2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 70, p. 279-287Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sector specific skills in occupational safety and health (OS&H) are crucial for being able to contribute to good work environment and decrease today's high levels of sick absences. Large manufacturing companies are due to tradition good at OS&H and can serve as an interesting context for investigating the knowledge level in the area today, and needs for the future. For this purpose a case study was performed in this sector as a co-operative inquiry, including 10 OS&H professionals (engineers and ergonomists) employed at in-house and external occupational health services (OHS). Professional experiences, good examples from practice and current research were shared jointly within the inquiry. The results show needs to work more preventively than today comprehending aspects as system understanding, integrated work teams, participation, a clear role in change projects plus skills in risk assessments. Skills in how to conduct well-functioning dialogues with stakeholders were also on the agenda.

  • 19.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Activity-based Flexible Office work environments: Design and implementation processes and outcomes2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent years, there has been a reported increase in organizations relocating to Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) worldwide. The idea of A-FOs is to offer work conditions suitable for the workforce’s tasks and individual preferences. Benefits of the A-FO include employee autonomy, privacy and inter- and intra-team communication. However, there are reports within Swedish media on reduced performance, increased dissatisfaction, injustice, and workplace avoidance amongst employees occupying A-FOs. Added to which empirical research supporting A-FOs claimed benefits are scarce with inconsistent results.

    Aim: The aim of this thesis is to explore and investigate perceptions of workspace, work conditions, work environment satisfaction, and perceived performance in A-FOs (aim of Studies I-V). Additionally, the sub-aims are to explore and investigate associations with underlying factors such as design and implementation process factors including methods suggestions (aims of Studies II, IV & VI), physical workspace factors (aim of Study III), desk-sharing and speech policies (aim of Study IV), and organizational preconditions (aim of Study V).  This thesis aims at integrating the contributions of each paper and making the whole greater than the sum of its parts.

    Method: A problem centered, pragmatic approach guided the methodological choices. Two in-depth longitudinal case (n=66 & 46) and two cross-sectional (n=202 & 105) studies were conducted at five single floor A-FOs. A mixed method approach was adopted comprising of six questionnaires, 105 individual interviews, documentation of plan layouts, photographs, planning documents and observations. A third cross-sectional study with 7 additional cases was conducted on 473-715 questionnaire responses.

    Results & discussion: The results showed that work environment satisfaction and perceived performance can increase after relocation to A-FOs. Reported contributing design and implementation process factors included meaningful objectives for the employees, allocation of time and financial resources, having an organizational focus, employee empowerment, and a methodological approach. A methods framework divided into A-FO design stages is presented that can facilitate the design process of A-FOs. Reported contributing workspace design factors included ample desk-sharing ratios and workspace diversity. Desk-sharing and speech rules were identified: when to remove belongings, allowance to occupy the same workstation in open-plan and enclosed areas on consecutive days, and allocations of areas where speaking on the phone, and verbal interaction with colleagues and interruptions are allowed or forbidden. Organizational preconditions, such as innovative work tasks and an open-plan office type prior to relocation were associated with preference for the A-FO.

    Conclusion: Design and implementation factors, workspace factors, application of rules and organizational preconditions are possible predictors of work conditions, work environment satisfaction, and perceived performance. A-FOs can be perceived as noisy workplaces that create extra work, decrease interaction as well as increase uncertainty on how to act within the office. However, A-FOs can also be preferred above other office types and be perceived with high work environment satisfaction and perceived performance. This thesis has stressed the importance of a holistic sociotechnical perspective during A-FO implementations, and the importance of employee involvement and empowerment, workspace diversity and desk-sharing policies.

  • 20.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Relocation to an activity-based flexible office – Design processes and outcomes2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 73, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations relocate to activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) and the results are mixed. This study aims at identifying factors in the design and implementation process that contribute to perceived performance and environmental satisfaction with A-FOs. A company with 50 employees was studied using interviews, questionnaires and documentation before and after relocation. The results showed that process factors such as objectives, financial and time resources, employee participation and empowerment, and methodological approach contributed to the outcomes. Perceived performance and employee satisfaction with the physical environment increased significantly after the relocation. Employee empowerment, highlighted by the employees, correlated with the performance and satisfaction parameters. A conceptual model is proposed relating process factors, internal and external organizational context, and physical office setting to work condition consequences and overall outcomes such as employee performance and satisfaction.

  • 21.
    Rolfö, Linda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Relocation to an activity-based flexible office: Design processes and outcomes2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 73, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organizations relocate to activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) and the results are mixed. This study aims at identifying factors in the design and implementation process that contribute to perceived performance and environmental satisfaction with A-FOs.

    A company with 50 employees was studied using interviews, questionnaires and documentation before and after relocation. The results showed that process factors such as objectives, financial and time resources, employee participation and empowerment, and methodological approach contributed to the outcomes. Perceived performance and employee satisfaction with the physical environment increased significantly after the relocation. Employee empowerment, highlighted by the employees, correlated with the performance and satisfaction parameters.

    A conceptual model is proposed relating process factors, internal and external organizational context, and physical office setting to work condition consequences and overall outcomes such as employee performance and satisfaction.

  • 22.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Bodin Danielsson, Christina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Plan layout, space ratios and interior design in activity-based flexible officesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based flexible offices (A-FOs) are implemented worldwide and comprise open-plan areas and additional enclosed back-up spaces. A-FOs vary in number of acoustic settings, individual enclosed back-up rooms, workstation arrangement and amount of space per workstation and employee. Comparative studies of A-FOs are scarce and do not specify or describe details about architectural features, perceptions of these features and related working conditions. This study compares four A-FO cases’ workspaces (i.e. plan layouts), acoustic settings, space ratios and interior designs, as well as employee perceptions of these settings and perceived performance and workspace satisfaction. Evaluation of four plan layouts, on-site observations and Kruskal-Wallis pairwise comparisons on 202 questionnaire responses showed that employees in offices with (1) most ample ratios (e.g. 0.9 workstations/employee), (2) variations in acoustic environments (from strictly quiet to interactive areas), (3) lowest number of workstations in a row, and (4) corridors separated from workstations, were significantly more satisfied with the space configuration parameters, acoustics, mental working conditions and privacy, as well as work environment satisfaction and perceived performance. The office environment can explain variations in workspace satisfaction and perceived performance in A-FOs.

  • 23.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    A proposed methods framework and a pilot intervention for workplace design2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 824, p. 356-365Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workspace design process offers opportunities for significant improvements of work environments at low costs. However, work environment experts and Occupational Health Services (OHS) personnel are not seen as natural partners, inhibiting their chances of getting experience. This paper reports results from a national pilot intervention project comprised of a methods framework and a course. The aim of the intervention was to teach these professionals reliable, cost-effective and feasible methods for conducting workplace design projects. The intervention also aimed to increase employee participation in workplace design processes and thereby achieve better impact in these cases. Methods were taught to 56 work environment experts, also creating incentives for them to practice this knowledge. These experts were given incentives to contact and offer their client organizations services for planning new work environments. In the long term, the competence within the field of workplace design on a national level hopefully will be improved.

  • 24.
    Rolfö, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Jahncke, Helena
    University of Gävle.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University.
    Öhrn, Maria
    Umeå University.
    Babapour, Maral
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Predictors of Preference for the Activity-based Flexible Office2018In: Human Systems Engineering and Design: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Human Systems Engineering and Design (IHSED2018): Future Trends and Applications, October 25-27, 2018, CHU-Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, France / [ed] Tareq Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, Redha Taiar, Switzerland, 2018, p. 547-552Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Activity-based Flexible Offices (A-FOs) are implemented with vary- ing degree of success. Employees relocate from cell or open-plan offices, from different organizational backgrounds, varying design and implementation pro- cesses, and have different types of work tasks. This study aims at investigating whether preference for the A-FO correlate with these preconditions. The results from Chi-square tests and Spearman’s non-parametric correlation of post- relocation questionnaires distributed to 11 A-FO sites, showed that a high pref- erence for the A-FO correlated strongest with an A-FO preference prior to relo- cation, being a former open-plan office occupier and with frequent performance of innovation. Low preference for the A-FO correlated with frequent perfor- mance of concentration demanding tasks. Working with tasks with high confi- dentiality did not predict the preference ratings.

  • 25.
    Rose, Linda Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Unit of Safety and Health, Scania CV AB, Södertälje, Sweden.
    RAMP – A comprehensive MSD risk management tool2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 820, p. 537-546Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to describe the development, dissemination and preliminary effects of the use of a new musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) risk management tool for manual handling, RAMP (Risk Assessment and Management tool for manual handling Proactively). RAMP is research based and developed in close collaboration between researchers and practitioners with a participative iterative methodology. A broad strategy is used for the dissemination, including the use of professional networks, conferences, a specially developed homepage, and Massive Open Online Courses which also provide training on the tool use. The tool has been spread widely to about 45 countries since the release 2017. E.g. Scania CV uses RAMP as its global standard method for managing MSD risks at logistics and machining departments. Among the preliminary effects results show that at one department risk reduction measures had been taken for more than 2/3 of the work stations with assessments signalling elevated risk levels after 1.5 years. Further studies on RAMP are discussed. It is concluded that the development and the dissemination of RAMP can be seen as successful. Preliminary reports on the tool use effects indicate that the RAMP tool supports the MSD risk management process in the work to reduce MDS risks at workplaces.

  • 26.
    Rose, Linda Maria
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Österman, Cecilia
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Developing an International Master’s Programme in Ergonomics at a Technical University in Sweden2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, Vol. 821, p. 429-436Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to present the rationale for, and the development process of, a new international master’s programme in Ergonomics, here framed as ‘Technology, Work and Health’, at KTH, Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden. The masters’ programme is designed for two years of full-time studies (120 credits). A challenge during this development process, has been to decide not only what to include in the programme, but also what to exclude. The systems-oriented discipline of ergonomics now covers all aspects of human work. Thus, two tracks of specialization are offered: Work Environment Engineering (WEE) and Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE). The programme is given for the first time in the autumn 2018. After the first year it is necessary to evaluate the programme from student and teacher perspectives, to capture effects and improvement possibilities. Naturally, this evaluation includes the usual course evaluations that are done during and after each course. But also, from a recruiting perspective, when we now how many students, from where, and of which background that eventually were awarded a MSc degree. Finally, a programme review with an emphasis on outcomes is essential to establish that the programme meets academic standards, professional discipline expectations among employers of the graduates, and student expectations and satisfaction. The results from this review will provide the incentive for necessary major and minor changes to maintain an up-to-date and high-quality curriculum in a discipline that continues to evolve.

  • 27.
    Schwarz, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Gerhardsson, Andreas
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    van Leeuwen, Wessel
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Ericson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Royal Inst Technol, Div Ergon, CBH Sch, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fischer, Hfikan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Kecklund, Goran
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Akerstedt, Torbiorn
    Stockholm Univ, Stress Res Inst, Stockholm, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Dept Clin Neurosci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Does sleep deprivation increase the vulnerability to acute psychosocial stress in young and older adults?2018In: Psychoneuroendocrinology, ISSN 0306-4530, E-ISSN 1873-3360, Vol. 96, p. 155-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sleep loss and psychosocial stress often co-occur in today's society, but there is limited knowledge on the combined effects. Therefore, this experimental study investigated whether one night of sleep deprivation affects the response to a psychosocial challenge. A second aim was to examine if older adults, who may be less affected by both sleep deprivation and stress, react differently than young adults. 124 young (18-30 years) and 94 older (60-72 years) healthy adults participated in one of four conditions: i. normal night sleep & Placebo-Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), ii. normal night sleep & Trier Social Stress Test, iii. sleep deprivation & Placebo-TSST, iv. sleep deprivation & TSST. Subjective stress ratings, heart rate variability (HRV), salivary alpha amylase (sAA) and cortisol were measured throughout the protocol. At the baseline pre-stress measurement, salivary cortisol and subjective stress values were higher in sleep deprived than in rested participants. However, the reactivity to and recovery from the TSST was not significantly different after sleep deprivation for any of the outcome measures. Older adults showed higher subjective stress, higher sAA and lower HRV at baseline, indicating increased basal autonomic activity. Cortisol trajectories and HRV slightly differed in older adults compared with younger adults (regardless of the TSST). Moreover, age did not moderate the effect of sleep deprivation. Taken together, the results show increased stress levels after sleep deprivation, but do not confirm the assumption that one night of sleep deprivation increases the responsivity to an acute psychosocial challenge.

  • 28.
    Vänje, Annika
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering.
    Nord Nilsson, Lena
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    WIKIOSH: to develop learning networks about safety and health in the engineering sector2015In: Proceedings 19th Triennial Congress of the IEA, Melbourne 9-14 August 2015, International Ergonomics Association , 2015, p. 1411-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper a network for knowledge sharing is presented. The network turns to safety and health engineers, ergonomists and researchers working in or with the manufacturing industry. The aim with the network is to strengthen and share sector related knowledge on safety and health. The results show a high interest in this kind of network and that the need for knowledge on how to handle complex situations is in focus, and not how to solve specific one dimensional problems.

  • 29.
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Change agents and use of visual management tools in care process redesign: Implications on working conditions for operative managers and healthcare professionals2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish healthcare has been subject to change efforts to increase efficiency in care processes. In the 2000-2010’s lean production has influenced healthcare with change approaches such as visual management tools to increase patient flows and efficiency. Most previous research on lean healthcare has focused single hospitals or departments as case studies focusing lean production as successful for efficiency, or “mean” production affecting the work environment. Focus in this thesis though is instead on what strategies and approaches hospitals use in their care process redesign and their associations with working conditions and systems performance. This thesis’ overall aim was to assess change strategies and change approaches at strategic and operative levels during care process redesign at hospitals, focusing organization of change agents and use of visual management tools, and its implica-tions for alignment, working conditions and systems performance. Four studies were conducted at five Swedish hospitals, whereof three had lean-inspired change strategies. One qualitative cross-sectional study, one quantitative longitudinal study and two mixed method longitudinal studies are included in the thesis. Data was collected over three years with semi-structured interviews, structured interviews, staff questionnaires, manager questionnaires and photo document-ation. Qualitative data were analyzed by content analysis. Quantitative data were analyzed with Wilcoxon tests, mixed models of repeated measurements, ANOVA, and linear regression models. Results showed strategies involve operative manag-ers as change drivers, supported by change agent functions. Change agents’ contribution to change depends on e.g. closeness to operative managers due to the change agents place in the healthcare hierarchy, and also clarity regarding roles and responsibilities in change. Change agents with a close collaboration with operative managers, have better preconditions to contribute to alignment between change strategies and change approaches. Hospital care units in the 2010’s tend to use lean-inspired operative change approaches also without working with change strategies based on lean. Operative lean approaches show associations with positive working conditions for healthcare professionals. Visual management tools as change strategy has potential to support collaboration and communication within and between organizational levels and is considered to contribute to systems performance and alignment. Visual management tools as a cognitive job resource for operative managers show associations with e.g. lower burnout and more functioning collaboration as well as daily use among nurses show associations with cognitive, social and emotional benefits, perceived systems performance and buffering mental stress. Change agents and use of visual management tools are considered as contributors for operative managers’ and healthcare professionals’ sustainable work during care process redesign.

  • 30.
    Williamsson, Anna
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Operative managers' job-demands-resources when redesigning care processesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The aim was to describe hospitals’ approaches to use change agents and visualmanagement tools, and examine change agents and visual management tools as job resourcesfor operative managers, during care process redesign.

    Design

    A longitudinal three year (T0, T1, T2) mixed method design was used. Qualitativedata from semi-structured interviews was collected at five hospitals (T0, T2). Quantitativedata from questionnaires (T1, T2) was collected to examine the use and support from changeagents and visual management tools among operative managers at the hospitals. Operativemanagers’ support and associations with their working conditions were further examined inrelation to the Job Demands and Resources model. Analyses of differences between groups ofoperative managers were performed with Wilcoxon tests.

    Findings

    Change agents as emotional job resources supported operative managers whenintroducing care process redesign. Higher change agent support was associated to positiveresults regarding burnout and organizational outcomes. Visual management tools as cognitivejob resources supported operative managers when used daily, and were associated to positiveresults regarding burnout, and organizational outcomes. Combined support from both changeagents and visual management tools was associated to beneficial organizational outcomes(collaboration between operative managers as well as between operative managers andhealthcare professionals during care process redesign, and possibilities to fulfill managerialduties) and thus were considered as important job resources for operative managers to drivechange.

  • 31.
    Williamsson, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Dellve, Lotta
    Karltun, Anette
    Nurses’ use of visual management in hospitals - a longitudinal, quantitative study on its implications on systems performance and working conditions2018In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine potential benefits provided by dailyvisual management tool use and explore its association with systems performanceand working conditions among hospital nurses.Background: Visual management tools used in everyday work and improvementwork in health care theoretically contribute to shared understanding of complexwork systems and provide certain user benefits. Cognitive load, miscommunicationwithin and between professional groups, and pressure to engage in care processredesign add to nurses’ strained working conditions.Design: Quantitative longitudinal.Methods: Questionnaires were distributed at T0, (N = 948, 66% response rate), T1(N = 900, 70% response rate), and T2 (N = 621, 72% response rate) to nurses atfive hospitals. Three groups of users (daily users, start users, and non‐daily users)were compared by means T1–T2 (significance tested with Wilcoxon signed ranktest) and by mixed model repeated measures T0, T1, T2.Results: Daily use associated to better overview of work, collaboration, social capital,and clinical engagement. Job resources were rated higher by daily users. Mentalstress increased and development opportunities decreased over time among nondailyusers. There were associations between use and perceptions of systems performance,though the differences between groups were small.Conclusion: This study specifically explores visual management tool use in the hospitalsetting, which contributes to research by broadening the understanding of cognitive,social, and emotional benefits provided by visual management tool use. Dailyuse was associated to positive working conditions, small but positive differences insystems performance, and indicated a buffering effect on nurses’ mental stress.

  • 32.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Borgström, D.
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Validation and comparison of three positioning protocols of inertial measurement units for measuring trunk movement2019In: 20th Congress of the International Ergonomics Association, IEA 2018, Springer, 2019, p. 205-211Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Postures and movements of the trunk are of ergonomic concern when evaluating the risks at work. Technical measurement methods can be used for measurements of trunk movements for long duration with high accuracy, and are therefore increasingly used in practice and research. However, currently there is no standardized protocol for the sensor placement for trunk measurement. Three placement protocols of inertial measurement units (IMUs), including placement on C7, T4 and sternum (St), in combination with S1 spinous process, were compared with an optical motion capture (OMC) system. Four subjects performed a movement test including forward to backward bending, sideward bending and twisting of the trunk, and a symmetrical lifting task. Root-mean-square differences (RMSDs) and Pearson’s correlation were calculated between the two systems. For the movement tests, the RMSDs of the forward inclination at the 10th, 50th and 90th percentiles from the three IMUs were all smaller than 7.3°. Larger differences were shown for C7 of the sideward inclination at 90th percentile (10.8°). Also for the twisting, larger differences were shown, especially for C7-S1 and T4-S1 (RMSD = 16.5° and 19.8°). For the lifting tests of forward inclination, St had the smallest differences compared to OMC (RMSDs < 4.1°), while slightly larger errors were found for C7 and T4 at the 90th percentile (RMSDs = 8.1° and 8.2°). Different positioning protocols seem to have a slightly different effect on the measurement accuracy of trunk movement. Considerations should be taken when comparing results across studies applying different protocols.

  • 33.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH).
    Lu, Ke
    Abtahi, Farhad
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet.
    Eklund, Jörgen
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    A pilot study of using smart clothes for physicalworkload assessment2017In: JOY AT WORK, Lund, Sweden, 2017, p. 169-170Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Diaz-Olivares, Jose A.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Univ Boras, Swedish Sch Text, S-50190 Boras, Sweden.;Karolinska Inst, Inst Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden.;Karolinska Univ Hosp, Dept Biomed Engn, S-14157 Huddinge, Sweden..
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Boras, Swedish Sch Text, S-50190 Boras, Sweden..
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics. nstitute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    Karolinska Inst, Inst Environm Med, S-17177 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Eklund, Jörgen A. E.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Towards Smart Work Clothing for Automatic Risk Assessment of Physical Workload2018In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 40059-40072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work-related musculoskeletal and cardiovascular disorders are still prevalent in today's working population. Nowadays, risk assessments are usually performed via self-reports or observations, which have relatively low reliability. Technology developments in textile electrodes (textrodes), inertial measurement units, and the communication and processing capabilities of smart phones/tablets provide wearable solutions that enable continuous measurements of physiological and musculoskeletal loads at work with sufficient reliability and resource efficiency. In this paper, a wearable system integrating textrodes, motion sensors, and real-time data processing through a mobile application was developed as a demonstrator of risk assessment related to different types and levels of workload and activities. The system was demonstrated in eight subjects from four occupations with various workload intensities, during which the heart rate and leg motion data were collected and analyzed with real-time risk assessment and feedback. The system showed good functionality and usability as a risk assessment tool. The results contribute to designing and developing future wearable systems and bring new solutions for the prevention of work-related disorders.

  • 35.
    Yang, Liyun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Lu, Ke
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH).
    Forsman, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Biomedical Engineering and Health Systems, Ergonomics.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Ekblom, Örjan
    Eklund, Jörgen
    Development of smart wearable systems for physiological workload assessment using heart rate and accelerometryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 35 of 35
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