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  • 1.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Accessible Digital Musical Instruments: A Review of Musical Interfaces in Inclusive Music Practice2019In: Multimodal Technologies and Interaction, E-ISSN 2414-4088, Vol. 3, no 3, article id 57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current advancements in music technology enable the creation of customized Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs). This paper presents a systematic review of Accessible Digital Musical Instruments (ADMIs) in inclusive music practice. History of research concerned with facilitating inclusion in music-making is outlined, and current state of developments and trends in the field are discussed. Although the use of music technology in music therapy contexts has attracted more attention in recent years, the topic has been relatively unexplored in Computer Music literature. This review investigates a total of 113 publications focusing on ADMIs. Based on the 83 instruments in this dataset, ten control interface types were identified: tangible controllers, touchless controllers, Brain–Computer Music Interfaces (BCMIs), adapted instruments, wearable controllers or prosthetic devices, mouth-operated controllers, audio controllers, gaze controllers, touchscreen controllers and mouse-controlled interfaces. The majority of the AMDIs were tangible or physical controllers. Although the haptic modality could potentially play an important role in musical interaction for many user groups, relatively few of the ADMIs (15.6%) incorporated vibrotactile feedback. Aspects judged to be important for successful ADMI design were instrument adaptability and customization, user participation, iterative prototyping, and interdisciplinary development teams.

  • 2.
    Frid, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Diverse Sounds: Enabling Inclusive Sonic Interaction2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This compilation thesis collects a series of publications on designing sonic interactions for diversity and inclusion. The presented papers focus on case studies in which musical interfaces were either developed or reviewed. While the described studies are substantially different in their nature, they all contribute to the thesis by providing reflections on how musical interfaces could be designed to enable inclusion rather than exclusion. Building on this work, I introduce two terms: inclusive sonic interaction design and Accessible Digital Musical Instruments (ADMIs). I also define nine properties to consider in the design and evaluation of ADMIs: expressiveness, playability, longevity, customizability, pleasure, sonic quality, robustness, multimodality and causality. Inspired by the experience of playing an acoustic instrument, I propose to enable musical inclusion for under-represented groups (for example persons with visual- and hearing-impairments, as well as elderly people) through the design of Digital Musical Instruments (DMIs) in the form of rich multisensory experiences allowing for multiple modes of interaction. At the same time, it is important to enable customization to fit user needs, both in terms of gestural control and provided sonic output. I conclude that the computer music community has the potential to actively engage more people in music-making activities. In addition, I stress the importance of identifying challenges that people face in these contexts, thereby enabling initiatives towards changing practices.

  • 3.
    Frid, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Interactive sonification of a fluid dance movement: an exploratory study2019In: Journal on Multimodal User Interfaces, ISSN 1783-7677, E-ISSN 1783-8738, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 181-189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present three different experiments designed to explore sound properties associated with fluid movement: (1) an experiment in which participants adjusted parameters of a sonification model developed for a fluid dance movement, (2) a vocal sketching experiment in which participants sketched sounds portraying fluid versus nonfluid movements, and (3) a workshop in which participants discussed and selected fluid versus nonfluid sounds. Consistent findings from the three experiments indicated that sounds expressing fluidity generally occupy a lower register and has less high frequency content, as well as a lower bandwidth, than sounds expressing nonfluidity. The ideal sound to express fluidity is continuous, calm, slow, pitched, reminiscent of wind, water or an acoustic musical instrument. The ideal sound to express nonfluidity is harsh, non-continuous, abrupt, dissonant, conceptually associated with metal or wood, unhuman and robotic. Findings presented in this paper can be used as design guidelines for future applications in which the movement property fluidity is to be conveyed through sonification.

  • 4.
    Frid, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. KMH Royal College of Music, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Elblaus, Ludvig
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sound Forest - Evaluation of an Accessible Multisensory Music Installation2019In: Proceedings of the 2019 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, ACM , 2019, p. 1-12, article id 677Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound Forest is a music installation consisting of a room with light-emitting interactive strings, vibrating platforms and speakers, situated at the Swedish Museum of Performing Arts. In this paper we present an exploratory study focusing on evaluation of Sound Forest based on picture cards and interviews. Since Sound Forest should be accessible for everyone, regardless age or abilities, we invited children, teens and adults with physical and intellectual disabilities to take part in the evaluation. The main contribution of this work lies in its fndings suggesting that multisensory platforms such as Sound Forest, providing whole-body vibrations, can be used to provide visitors of diferent ages and abilities with similar associations to musical experiences. Interviews also revealed positive responses to haptic feedback in this context. Participants of diferent ages used diferent strategies and bodily modes of interaction in Sound Forest, with activities ranging from running to synchronized music-making and collaborative play.

  • 5.
    Hansen, Kjetil Falkenberg
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bresin, Roberto
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Holzapfel, Andre
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Pauletto, Sandra
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Gulz, Torbjörn
    Lindetorp, Hans
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Misgeld, Olof
    Sköld, Mattias
    Student involvement in sound and music research: Current practices at KTH and KMH2019In: Combined proceedings of theNordic Sound and Music Computing Conference 2019and the Interactive Sonification Workshop 2019, 2019, p. 36-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper collects experiences of involving students in research from the senior teachers of the Sound and Music Computing group at KTH, including four team members who have taught at KMH for many years and now are enrolled as doctoral students. We describe how students attending our courses are invited to be involved in our research activities, and we argue that this involvement both contributes to our research and benefits the students in the short and long term. To engage students in and beyond course activity has been a working practice both at the KTH Sound and Music Computing group and at KMH since many years. Among the assignments, activities, and tasks we offer are pilot experiments, prototype development, public exhibitions, performing or composing, data collection, analysis challenges, and not least, bachelor and master projects that lead to academic publications.

  • 6.
    Pargman, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Eriksson, Elina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bates, Oliver
    Univ Lancaster, Sch Comp & Commun, Lancaster LA1 4WA, England..
    Kirman, Ben
    Univ York, Dept Theatre Film & Televis, York YO10 5GB, N Yorkshire, England..
    Comber, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hedman, Anders
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    van den Broeck, Martijn
    Umea Univ, Umea Inst Design, Fac Sci & Technol, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    The future of computing and wisdom: Insights from Human-Computer Interaction2019In: Futures: The journal of policy, planning and futures studies, ISSN 0016-3287, E-ISSN 1873-6378, Vol. 113, article id UNSP 102434Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a structured report on a dialogue on the Future of Computing and Wisdom. The dialogue consists of a recorded and transcribed discussion between researchers and practitioners in the field of Human-Computer Interaction that was held at workshop in conjunction with the 10th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction in September 2018. However, the dialogue also encompasses workshop participants' preparatory work with writing "fictional abstracts" - abstracts of yet-to-be-written research papers that will be published in 2068. The polyvocal dialogue that is reported upon thus includes not just the voices of researchers and practitioners who attended the workshop, but also includes the voices of the future researchers of 2068 who wrote the abstracts in question as well as the voices of the organisms, individuals, intelligent agents and communities who are the subjects, victims, beneficiaries and bystanders of wise (or unwise) future computing systems.

  • 7.
    Riese, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Bälter, Olle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS. KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Mosavat, Vahid
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Don’t get stuck in the tool, use the method!: Lessons learned by teaching test driven program development2019In: KTH SoTL 2019, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology , 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2014, we have embedded Test Driven Development (TDD) in an introductory programming course. TDD is common industry practice for developing code, and has also become a part of curriculums at different levels and proven beneficial in educational settings (Kollanus and Isomöttönen, 2008). The method itself is rather simple: you start with writing test cases for your program (what output you expect for certain input) and then you write code that fullfils these tests. In that way, the use of the TDD enables you to test your code immediately and throughout the development, in opposed to the more traditional way in which you first finish the code and then write test cases to verify it. Teaching this method in an introductory course would also enable students to use it in later courses and be well accustomed to the method when they graduate. Researchers that conducted a previous study on this recommends that TDD should be mandatory (Marrero and Settle, 2005).

    TDD has during the years 2014-2017 been a mandatory part of an introductory programming course offered to non-computer science majors. The approach to teaching TDD has evolved and been a bit different each year. However, since TDD have been a mandatory part of the course, it was also part of what the students were assessed on, in coherent with constructive alignment (Biggs, 1996). Making it part of the assessment was also believed to motivate students to use the method, since the assessments can make students take part in learnings situations they otherwise would not (Ramsden, 2003). Hence, the students were required to not only submit and present their code, but also their test cases, that had to be written in a standard tool, doctest, that was presented and explained during lectures. In 2017, all 64 students that presented their final assignment during the spring filled out a survey about their experiences with TDD and in addition, nine of the students were interviewed.

    From the open-ended questions on the surveys and from the interviews, it became evident that many of the students had not understood nor used the method TDD, but had instead used the testing tool to create test cases when their program was already finished. They had handed in test cases since that was a requirement to pass the course, but they had forgotten all about the method. From these results, the lesson we learned was that even though our intention had been to make TDD mandatory, and we planned the assessment with that in mind, we had actually only made the use of the testing tool mandatory. 

    We did try to convince the students that using the TDD method would be beneficial in the development of the program, but failed. One of the benefits of TDD is for code maintenance, but the structure of our courses does not easily lend itself to requiring adjustments of a student project say six months after the first submission, especially for students who are non-CS majors.

    When teaching your students a method through the usage of a tool, you need to make sure your students can distinguish between the method and the tool. You will also have to emphasize the method and plan the assessment in such a way that the use of the method, the process, is assessed. If the focus is only on the finished product, it will more likely be an assessment of how well the students used the tool and the students are at risk of neglecting the method altogether.

  • 8.
    Sanches, Pedro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Höök, Kristina
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Sas, Corina
    Univ Lancaster, Sch Comp & Commun, Lancaster, England;Univ Lancaster, Inst Social Futures, Lancaster, England.
    Stahl, Anna
    RISE Res Inst Sweden AB, ICT SICS, Box 1263, SE-16429 Kista, Sweden.
    Ambiguity as a resource to inform proto-practices: The case of skin conductance2019In: ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, ISSN 1073-0516, E-ISSN 1557-7325, Vol. 26, no 4, article id 21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Skin conductance is an interesting measure of arousal level, largely unfamiliar to most end-users. We designed a mobile application mirroring end-users’ skin conductance in evocative visualizations, purposefully made ambiguous to invite rich interpretations. Twenty-three participants used the system for a month. Through the lens of a practice-based analysis of weekly interviews and the logged data, several quite different—sometimes even mutually exclusive—interpretations or proto-practices arose: as stress management; sports performance; emotion tracking; general life logging; personality representation; or behavior change practices. This suggests the value of a purposefully open initial design to allow for the emergence of broader proto-practices to be followed by a second step of tailored design for each identified goal to facilitate the transition from proto-practice to practice. We contribute to the HCI discourse on ambiguity in design, arguing for balancing openness and ambiguity with scaffolding to better support the emergence of practices around biodata.

  • 9.
    Välja, Margus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Network and Systems Engineering.
    Lagerström, Robert
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Network and Systems Engineering.
    Franke, Ulrik
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, 164 40 Kista, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Göran
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    A Framework for Automatic IT Architecture Modeling: Applying Truth Discovery2019In: Complex Systems Informatics and Modeling Quarterly, E-ISSN 2255-9922, no 20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modeling IT architecture is a complex, time consuming, and error prone task. However, many systems produce information that can be used for automating modeling. Early studies show that this is a feasible approach if we can overcome certain obstacles. Often more than one source is needed in order to cover the data requirements of an IT architecture model; and the use of multiple sources means that heterogeneous data needs to be merged. Moreover, the same collection of data might be useful for creating more than one kind of models for decision support. IT architecture is constantly changing and data sources provide information that can deviate from reality to some degree. There can be problems with varying accuracy (e.g. actuality and coverage), representation (e.g. data syntax and file format), or inconsistent semantics. Thus, integration of heterogeneous data from different sources needs to handle data quality problems of the sources. This can be done by using probabilistic models. In the field of truth discovery, these models have been developed to track data source trustworthiness in order to help solving conflicts while making quality issues manageable for automatic modeling. We build upon previous research in modeling automation and propose a framework for merging data from multiple sources with a truth discovery algorithm to create multiple IT architecture models. The usefulness of the proposed framework is demonstrated in a study where models using three tools are created, namely; Archi, securiCAD, and EMFTA.

  • 10.
    Widdicks, Kelly
    et al.
    School of Computing and Communications, Lancaster University, UK.
    Ringenson, Tina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Strategic Sustainability Studies.
    Pargman, Daniel
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Kuppusami, Vishnupriya
    Department of Sustainable Communication Networks, University of Bremen, Germany.
    Lago, Patricia
    Department of Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, the Netherlands.
    Undesigning the Internet: An exploratory study of reducing everyday Internet connectivity2018In: EPiC Series in Computing: ICT4S2018 / [ed] B. Penzenstadler, S. Easterbrook, C. Venters and S.I. Ahmed, 2018, Vol. 52, p. 384-397Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet connectivity is seamlessly integrated into many of our everyday habits and activities. Despite this, previous research has highlighted that our rather excessive Internet use is not sustainable or even always socially beneficial. In this paper, we carried out an exploratory study on how Internet disconnection affects our everyday lives and whether such disconnection is even possible in today’s society. Through daily surveys, we captured what Internet use means for ten participants and how this varies when they are asked to disconnect by default, and re-connect only when their Internet use is deemed as necessary. From our study, we found that our participants could disconnect from the Internet for certain activities (particularly leisure focused), yet they developed adaptations in their lives to address the necessity of their Internet use. We elicit these adaptations into five themes that encompass how the participants did, or did not, use the Internet based on their necessities. Drawing on these five themes, we conclude with ways in which our study can inspire future research surrounding: Internet infrastructure limits; the promotion of slow values; Internet non-use; and the undesign of Internet services.

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