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  • 1.
    Candel, Melissa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Co-Developing Sustainability Requirements: Exploring client and municipal perspectives in housing development2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Construction has major environmental, social and economic impacts. Improving sustainability both during and after the construction process is widely discussed among a slew of practitioners, governments and researchers. Construction clients, such as housing developers, are considered key actors for change and innovation because of their position to set requirements when procuring construction projects. The process of developing project requirements has therefore mainly been studied during the construction clients’ procurement process. At the same time, municipalities use their position as land owners to drive sustainable development. Land allocation agreements allow municipalities to set project-specific sustainability requirements for construction projects on municipal land. The purpose of this thesis is to explore how municipal sustainability requirements affect housing developers when planning and designing their projects.

    The research is based on a single empirical case study of an urban development programme comprising multiple parallel and sequential housing construction projects. In this study, the municipality’s and housing developers’ perspectives are explored. The results demonstrate that the housing developers perceive several barriers to implementing municipal sustainability requirements. The three main barriers that were identified are reduced flexibility coupled with uncertainty, conflicting interests coupled with reduced autonomy and interdependencies, and a lack of trust and transparency coupled with interdependencies. The municipal sustainability requirements are initially developed by the municipality for the land allocation agreement. They are then co-developed further by the municipality and the housing developers together through negotiations before being finalised in conjunction with the developers’ procurement process.

    The study is focused on the period following the housing developers’ signing of land allocation agreements with the municipality and before starting their procurement process. During this period, the housing developers attempt to negotiate municipal sustainability requirements that they anticipate will increase costs, risk and uncertainty and decrease the value of their final product. Negotiations between the housing developers and the municipality can be viewed as value co-creation processes stimulated by functional conflict. These findings build on three papers that are included in the thesis.

    Contributions are made to literature on the role of construction clients and their perceived barriers to implementing and developing sustainable construction solutions and practices and barriers to change in general. Theoretical contributions are also made to literature on value co-creation in construction by illustrating how clients engage in the co-creation of value with municipalities and other clients. Finally, the theoretical link between value co-creation and functional conflict is studied and developed. 

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    fulltext
  • 2.
    Candel, Melissa
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Housing Developers’ Perceived Barriers to Implementing Municipal Sustainability RequirementsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Candel, Melissa
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management. KTH Royal Institute of Technology.
    Karrbom Gustavsson, Tina
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management.
    Eriksson, Per-Erik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management.
    Early Requirements Capture: A study of Value Co-Creation for Sustainability in ConstructionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Kadefors, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management. Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lingegård, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Johanna, Alkan-Olsson
    Centre for environment and climate research, Lund University, Sweden.
    Stefan, Uppenberg
    WSP Group, Sweden.
    Daniel, Balian
    WSP Group, Sweden.
    Public procurement for carbon reduction in infrastructure projects: an international overview2019In: Proceedings SBE19 Graz Sustainable Built Environment Conference 2019: Transition towards a net zero carbon built environment, 2019, Vol. 323Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbon emissions emanating from infrastructure construction projects are substantial and stem primarily from production of construction materials and use of energy for construction transport and site activities. In recent years, public infrastructure clients world-wide have begun to include carbon reduction goals in their procurement requirements. This is however a new and complex field where practices vary and are still developing. In this paper, we compare models for carbon reduction requirements in infrastructure construction projects based on case studies of large projects in Australia, USA, the Netherlands, Sweden and UK. We found that open, functional carbon reduction requirements were considered innovative but entailed costs for calculating baselines and risks for speculation. Also, high time pressure in projects limits contractors' opportunities to explore reduction opportunities. Thus, specific, prescriptive requirements may play an important role in client-led, long-term innovation processes. Organizational competence and resources on the buyer side are essential, and policies for carbon reduction should aim to increase client capacity. Further, procurement practices are developed in mutual interaction between clients and suppliers over longer periods of time, which limits possibilities to transfer procurement policies and requirements between contexts.

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    fulltext
  • 5.
    Kytömäki, Olli
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management.
    An operationalizable definition and method for research on innovation ecosystemsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of innovation ecosystem has attracted much research in strategy and innovation fields in recent years. The expansion of literature without common definitions or methodology has caused ambiguity about what innovation ecosystems are about. Recently, several authors have criticized the conceptual and methodological rigor in innovation ecosystems research and called for research focusing on the systemic nature of innovation ecosystems.

    This paper builds on these critical accounts by providing an operationalizable definition of innovation ecosystem: a system of actors that contribute towards a common system-level innovation goal. Based on this definition, the paper provides a methodological approach that quantifies qualitative data and then analyses that quantitative data by social network analysis. This method is used for multi-level, multi-layer ecosystem analysis. The definition and methodology are operationalized in a study of innovation ecosystem in the real estate sector.

  • 6.
    Kytömäki, Olli
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management.
    Digitalization and innovation in the real estate and facility management sectors - an ecosystem perspective2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalization has become a topic of several presentations and discussions in real estate industry seminars in recent years. Often the speeches are about why the real estate industry needs digitalization, presenting threats and opportunities for the participants of the seminars. Still, real estate industry is conservative by nature and thus far property owners have not needed to innovate in order to stay in business. Therefore, a question arises that how do real estate owners react to the growing expectations about digitalization. On the other hand, relatively little is known about the innovativeness of real estate firms, as innovation research in built environment sector has largely focused on building project management phase organizations and facility management firms. Still, the real estate owners have a central role and a long-term perspective on the innovation in the built environment sector as a whole, as they are clients in all building life-cycle phases.

    Thus, this thesis purpose is to increase understanding of digitalization as a phenomenon in the real estate and facility management sectors: 1) by distinguishing the phenomenon in relation to existing research and 2) by generating new knowledge on digitalization in the field by explorative research.

    In order to distinguish the phenomenon in relation to existing research, the thesis provides a structured literature review that focuses on digitalization in the real estate and facility management sector. The main conclusion is that digitalization is a complex phenomenon, including multiple perspectives and conceptualizations, although, the literature converges on rather distinct topics of digital systems and methods, technology adoption and organization and management. Additionally, the review provides a discussion of opportunities for further research. An argument is made for sociotechnical perspective to provide opportunities for better managerial comprehension on the complex phenomenon.

    In order to generate new knowledge on digitalization in the field, particularly, on the innovativeness of real estate firms, the thesis provides summaries of two papers. The first paper focuses on the innovation processes in the real estate owner organizations and the second paper focuses on the innovation ecosystem that comprises of actors that contribute towards common innovation goals. The papers are based on interviews with the various real estate industry actors and document analysis. The papers converge on results, concluding that the real estate owners have invested in resources and capabilities for innovation, but it is still challenging for them to act on the digital threats and opportunities. Additionally, the second paper develops an operationalizable definition and methodology for research on innovation ecosystems, which has relevance for the more general literature on innovation and strategy.

    Thus, this thesis distinguishes digitalization as a phenomenon in the built environment management sectors and increases understanding on the innovativeness of real estate firms’ and other actors that contribute to the innovativeness of the real estate sector as a whole.

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    TRITA-ABE-DLT-1949
  • 7.
    Kytömäki, Olli
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Real Estate and Construction Management, Construction and Facilities Management.
    Kadefors, Anna
    Digitalization and innovation in the real estate sector2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, digitalization has emerged as a main theme in the industry discourse in the real estate sector. In this discourse, some influencers foresee that digitalization poses disruption, even an existential threat, to the traditional actors, which are expected to make “digital transformations” to remain relevant. Others emphasize the potential of digitalization to drive efficiency, sustainability and servitization of the industry. However, the real estate sector is a mature business environment with a low rate of innovation and limited R&D resources, and it is not evident how this traditional sector reacts to the multitude of new predictions and propositions. Based on theories of innovation management, this study investigates real estate owners’ sense-making and strategizing in this area: how do they seek information and prioritize which initiatives to take? Which actions are taken? How are structures for innovation management affected, within firms as well as on the industry level? The results are based on semi- structured interviews conducted with respondents responsible for digital development in large private and public real estate owners in Sweden, as well as with representatives of industry associations. Findings include that real estate firms and industry associations emphasize digitalization-related opportunities to improve efficiency and tenant satisfaction, as well as to create new services and business models. Also, real estate firms perceive that change is needed to remain competitive, and as a response, they have created digitalization strategies, formed new organizational units and recruited new people to lead digitalization efforts. Further, they have established new collaborative relationships to industry networks and competitors.

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