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  • 1.
    Deichler, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Wang, Siyang
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Alexanderson, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Learning to generate pointing gestures in situated embodied conversational agents2023Ingår i: Frontiers in Robotics and AI, E-ISSN 2296-9144, Vol. 10, artikel-id 1110534Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the main goals of robotics and intelligent agent research is to enable them to communicate with humans in physically situated settings. Human communication consists of both verbal and non-verbal modes. Recent studies in enabling communication for intelligent agents have focused on verbal modes, i.e., language and speech. However, in a situated setting the non-verbal mode is crucial for an agent to adapt flexible communication strategies. In this work, we focus on learning to generate non-verbal communicative expressions in situated embodied interactive agents. Specifically, we show that an agent can learn pointing gestures in a physically simulated environment through a combination of imitation and reinforcement learning that achieves high motion naturalness and high referential accuracy. We compared our proposed system against several baselines in both subjective and objective evaluations. The subjective evaluation is done in a virtual reality setting where an embodied referential game is played between the user and the agent in a shared 3D space, a setup that fully assesses the communicative capabilities of the generated gestures. The evaluations show that our model achieves a higher level of referential accuracy and motion naturalness compared to a state-of-the-art supervised learning motion synthesis model, showing the promise of our proposed system that combines imitation and reinforcement learning for generating communicative gestures. Additionally, our system is robust in a physically-simulated environment thus has the potential of being applied to robots.

  • 2.
    Deichler, Anna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Wang, Siyang
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Alexanderson, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Towards Context-Aware Human-like Pointing Gestures with RL Motion Imitation2022Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pointing is an important mode of interaction with robots. While large amounts of prior studies focus on recognition of human pointing, there is a lack of investigation into generating context-aware human-like pointing gestures, a shortcoming we hope to address. We first collect a rich dataset of human pointing gestures and corresponding pointing target locations with accurate motion capture. Analysis of the dataset shows that it contains various pointing styles, handedness, and well-distributed target positions in surrounding 3D space in both single-target pointing scenario and two-target point-and-place.We then train reinforcement learning (RL) control policies in physically realistic simulation to imitate the pointing motion in the dataset while maximizing pointing precision reward.We show that our RL motion imitation setup allows models to learn human-like pointing dynamics while maximizing task reward (pointing precision). This is promising for incorporating additional context in the form of task reward to enable flexible context-aware pointing behaviors in a physically realistic environment while retaining human-likeness in pointing motion dynamics.

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  • 3.
    Ekstedt, Erik
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Wang, Siyang
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Skantze, Gabriel
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Automatic Evaluation of Turn-taking Cues in Conversational Speech Synthesis2023Ingår i: Interspeech 2023, International Speech Communication Association , 2023, s. 5481-5485Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Turn-taking is a fundamental aspect of human communication where speakers convey their intention to either hold, or yield, their turn through prosodic cues. Using the recently proposed Voice Activity Projection model, we propose an automatic evaluation approach to measure these aspects for conversational speech synthesis. We investigate the ability of three commercial, and two open-source, Text-To-Speech (TTS) systems ability to generate turn-taking cues over simulated turns. By varying the stimuli, or controlling the prosody, we analyze the models performances. We show that while commercial TTS largely provide appropriate cues, they often produce ambiguous signals, and that further improvements are possible. TTS, trained on read or spontaneous speech, produce strong turn-hold but weak turn-yield cues. We argue that this approach, that focus on functional aspects of interaction, provides a useful addition to other important speech metrics, such as intelligibility and naturalness.

  • 4.
    Miniotaitė, Jūra
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Människocentrerad teknologi, Medieteknik och interaktionsdesign, MID.
    Wang, Siyang
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Gustafson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Abelho Pereira, André Tiago
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Hi robot, it's not what you say, it's how you say it2023Ingår i: 2023 32ND IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOT AND HUMAN INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION, RO-MAN, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023, s. 307-314Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Many robots use their voice to communicate with people in spoken language but the voices commonly used for robots are often optimized for transactional interactions, rather than social ones. This can limit their ability to create engaging and natural interactions. To address this issue, we designed a spontaneous text-to-speech tool and used it to author natural and spontaneous robot speech. A crowdsourcing evaluation methodology is proposed to compare this type of speech to natural speech and state-of-the-art text-to-speech technology, both in disembodied and embodied form. We created speech samples in a naturalistic setting of people playing tabletop games and conducted a user study evaluating Naturalness, Intelligibility, Social Impression, Prosody, and Perceived Intelligence. The speech samples were chosen to represent three contexts that are common in tabletopgames and the contexts were introduced to the participants that evaluated the speech samples. The study results show that the proposed evaluation methodology allowed for a robust analysis that successfully compared the different conditions. Moreover, the spontaneous voice met our target design goal of being perceived as more natural than a leading commercial text-to-speech.

  • 5.
    Székely, Éva
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Wang, Siyang
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    So-to-Speak: an exploratory platform for investigating the interplay between style and prosody in TTS2023Ingår i: Interspeech 2023, International Speech Communication Association , 2023, s. 2016-2017Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, numerous speech synthesis systems have been proposed that feature multi-dimensional controllability, generating a level of variability that surpasses traditional TTS systems by orders of magnitude. However, it remains challenging for developers to comprehend and demonstrate the potential of these advanced systems. We introduce So-to-Speak, a customisable interface tailored for showcasing the capabilities of different controllable TTS systems. The interface allows for the generation, synthesis, and playback of hundreds of samples simultaneously, displayed on an interactive grid, with variation both low level prosodic features and high level style controls. To offer insights into speech quality, automatic estimates of MOS scores are presented for each sample. So-to-Speak facilitates the audiovisual exploration of the interaction between various speech features, which can be useful in a range of applications in speech technology.

  • 6.
    Wang, Siyang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Alexanderson, Simon
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Beskow, Jonas
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Integrated Speech and Gesture Synthesis2021Ingår i: ICMI 2021 - Proceedings of the 2021 International Conference on Multimodal Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2021, s. 177-185Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Text-to-speech and co-speech gesture synthesis have until now been treated as separate areas by two different research communities, and applications merely stack the two technologies using a simple system-level pipeline. This can lead to modeling inefficiencies and may introduce inconsistencies that limit the achievable naturalness. We propose to instead synthesize the two modalities in a single model, a new problem we call integrated speech and gesture synthesis (ISG). We also propose a set of models modified from state-of-the-art neural speech-synthesis engines to achieve this goal. We evaluate the models in three carefully-designed user studies, two of which evaluate the synthesized speech and gesture in isolation, plus a combined study that evaluates the models like they will be used in real-world applications - speech and gesture presented together. The results show that participants rate one of the proposed integrated synthesis models as being as good as the state-of-the-art pipeline system we compare against, in all three tests. The model is able to achieve this with faster synthesis time and greatly reduced parameter count compared to the pipeline system, illustrating some of the potential benefits of treating speech and gesture synthesis together as a single, unified problem.

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  • 7.
    Wang, Siyang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Evaluating Sampling-based Filler Insertion with Spontaneous TTS2022Ingår i: LREC 2022: Thirteen International Conference On Language Resources And Evaluation / [ed] Calzolari, N Bechet, F Blache, P Choukri, K Cieri, C Declerck, T Goggi, S Isahara, H Maegaard, B Mazo, H Odijk, H Piperidis, S, European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2022, s. 1960-1969Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Inserting fillers (such as "um", "like") to clean speech text has a rich history of study. One major application is to make dialogue systems sound more spontaneous. The ambiguity of filler occurrence and inter-speaker difference make both modeling and evaluation difficult. In this paper, we study sampling-based filler insertion, a simple yet unexplored approach to inserting fillers. We propose an objective score called Filler Perplexity (FPP). We build three models trained on two single-speaker spontaneous corpora, and evaluate them with FPP and perceptual tests. We implement two innovations in perceptual tests, (1) evaluating filler insertion on dialogue systems output, (2) synthesizing speech with neural spontaneous TTS engines. FPP proves to be useful in analysis but does not correlate well with perceptual MOS. Perceptual results show little difference between compared filler insertion models including with ground-truth, which may be due to the ambiguity of what is good filler insertion and a strong neural spontaneous TTS that produces natural speech irrespective of input. Results also show preference for filler-inserted speech synthesized with spontaneous TTS. The same test using TTS based on read speech obtains the opposite results, which shows the importance of using spontaneous TTS in evaluating filler insertions. Audio samples: www.speech.kth.se/tts- demos/LREC22

  • 8.
    Wang, Siyang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    A Comparative Study of Self-Supervised Speech Representations in Read and Spontaneous TTS2023Ingår i: ICASSPW 2023: 2023 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing Workshops, Proceedings, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2023Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work has explored using self-supervised learning (SSL) speech representations such as wav2vec2.0 as the representation medium in standard two-stage TTS, in place of conventionally used mel-spectrograms. It is however unclear which speech SSL is the better fit for TTS, and whether or not the performance differs between read and spontaneous TTS, the later of which is arguably more challenging. This study aims at addressing these questions by testing several speech SSLs, including different layers of the same SSL, in two-stage TTS on both read and spontaneous corpora, while maintaining constant TTS model architecture and training settings. Results from listening tests show that the 9th layer of 12-layer wav2vec2.0 (ASR finetuned) outperforms other tested SSLs and mel-spectrogram, in both read and spontaneous TTS. Our work sheds light on both how speech SSL can readily improve current TTS systems, and how SSLs compare in the challenging generative task of TTS. Audio examples can be found at https://www.speech.kth.se/tts-demos/ssr_tts

  • 9.
    Wang, Siyang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Henter, Gustav Eje
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Gustafsson, Joakim
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    A comparative study of self-supervised speech representationsin read and spontaneous TTS2023Manuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent work has explored using self-supervised learning(SSL) speech representations such as wav2vec2.0 as the rep-resentation medium in standard two-stage TTS, in place ofconventionally used mel-spectrograms. It is however unclearwhich speech SSL is the better fit for TTS, and whether ornot the performance differs between read and spontaneousTTS, the later of which is arguably more challenging. Thisstudy aims at addressing these questions by testing severalspeech SSLs, including different layers of the same SSL, intwo-stage TTS on both read and spontaneous corpora, whilemaintaining constant TTS model architecture and trainingsettings. Results from listening tests show that the 9th layerof 12-layer wav2vec2.0 (ASR finetuned) outperforms othertested SSLs and mel-spectrogram, in both read and sponta-neous TTS. Our work sheds light on both how speech SSL canreadily improve current TTS systems, and how SSLs comparein the challenging generative task of TTS. Audio examplescan be found at https://www.speech.kth.se/tts-demos/ssr tts

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  • 10.
    Wang, Siyang
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Székely, Éva
    KTH, Skolan för elektroteknik och datavetenskap (EECS), Intelligenta system, Tal, musik och hörsel, TMH.
    Evaluating Text-to-Speech Synthesis from a Large Discrete Token-based Speech Language Model2024Ingår i: 2024 Joint International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Language Resources and Evaluation, LREC-COLING 2024 - Main Conference Proceedings, European Language Resources Association (ELRA) , 2024, s. 6464-6474Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent advances in generative language modeling applied to discrete speech tokens presented a new avenue for text-to-speech (TTS) synthesis. These speech language models (SLMs), similarly to their textual counterparts, are scalable, probabilistic, and context-aware. While they can produce diverse and natural outputs, they sometimes face issues such as unintelligibility and the inclusion of non-speech noises or hallucination. As the adoption of this innovative paradigm in speech synthesis increases, there is a clear need for an in-depth evaluation of its capabilities and limitations. In this paper, we evaluate TTS from a discrete token-based SLM, through both automatic metrics and listening tests. We examine five key dimensions: speaking style, intelligibility, speaker consistency, prosodic variation, spontaneous behaviour. Our results highlight the model's strength in generating varied prosody and spontaneous outputs. It is also rated higher in naturalness and context appropriateness in listening tests compared to a conventional TTS. However, the model's performance in intelligibility and speaker consistency lags behind traditional TTS. Additionally, we show that increasing the scale of SLMs offers a modest boost in robustness. Our findings aim to serve as a benchmark for future advancements in generative SLMs for speech synthesis.

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