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  • 1. Agélii Genlott, Annika
    et al.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Andersson, Annika
    Leading dissemination of digital, science-based innovation in school–a case study2021In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digitalizing school is a process that comes with challenges. It requires strategic leadership and transformational change to work processes. Nevertheless, some succeed, and it is useful to understand what makes for success. This paper studies the challenges of leading digitalization of education in a city which decided to implement an IT-supported method for teaching literacy in primary schools. The method required transformational change; teachers not only had to learn to use technologies, they also had to review their pedagogy. This study is guided by the Diffusion of Innovation theory and draws on interviews with school principals. We find that the critical factors relate to the communication channel, the social system within and across schools, and the time perspective.

  • 2.
    Albiz, Julius
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Matviienko, Andrii
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Guiding Visual Attention on 2D Screens: Effects of Gaze Cues from Avatars and Humans2023In: Proceedings - SUI 2023: ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2023, article id 17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Guiding visual attention to specific parts of an interface is essential. One powerful tool for guiding attention is gaze cues, that direct visual attention in the same direction as a presented gaze. In this paper, we explored how to direct users' visual attention on 2D screens using gaze cues from avatars and humans. For this, we conducted a lab experiment (N = 30) based on three independent variables: (1) stimulus shown either as avatars or human faces, (2) target direction with a target appearing left or right from a stimulus, and (3) gaze validity indicating whether a stimulus' gaze was directed towards a target (valid gaze) or not (invalid gaze). Our results show that participants' total and average fixation on a target lasted longer in the presence of the human image than the avatar stimulus when a target appeared on the right side and when a stimulus' gaze was towards the target. Moreover, participants' average fixation was longer on the human than avatar stimulus gazing in the opposite direction from a target than towards it.

  • 3.
    Baars, Martine
    et al.
    Erasmus Univ, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Mobile Learning to Support Self- Regulated Learning: A Theoretical Review2022In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 14, no 4Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the possibilities of using and designing mobile technology for learning purposes coupled with learning analytics to support self-regulated learning (SRL). Being able to self-regulate one's own learning is important for academic success but is also challenging. Research has shown that without instructional support, students are often not able to effectively regulate their own learning. This is problematic for effective self-study and stands in the way of academic success. Providing instructional support for both metacognitive processes such as planning, monitoring, and reflection and cognitive processes such as learning strategies can help students to learn in a self-regulated way more optimally. Mobile learning provides opportunities to provide 'just in time' support for both cognitive and metacognitive processes. To provide insights into how mobile learning can support SRL, this theoretical review discusses selected studies that have used mobile learning to support SRL in different domains.

  • 4.
    Baars, Martine
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, Education and Child Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Supporting metacognitive and cognitive processes during self-study through mobile learning2023In: Metacognition and Education: Future Trends, Informa UK Limited , 2023, p. 147-166Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Being able to self-regulate one’s own learning is important for academic success, but was also found to be challenging and difficult for students. This is problematic for effective self-study and stands in the way of academic success. Metacognitive processes such as planning, monitoring and reflection are crucial to successful self-regulated learning. Yet, research has shown that without instructional support, students are often not able to effectively regulate their own learning. In relation to this, students often do not use the right learning strategies (e.g. summarising and self-testing) when engaging in self-regulated learning. Yet, providing instructional support for both metacognitive processes such as planning, monitoring and reflection, and cognitive processes such as learning strategies, can help students to learn in a self-regulated way more optimally. In this chapter, the possibilities of using and designing mobile technology for learning purposes coupled with learning analytics to support both metacognitive and cognitive processes during self-regulated learning are discussed. Finally, future trends and implications for practice and research are also provided.

  • 5.
    Bond, Melissa
    et al.
    Centre for Change and Complexity in Learning, Education Futures, University of South Australia, Australia and EPPI-Centre, University College London, United Kingdom.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bergdahl, Nina
    Halmstad University, Sweden and Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The current state of using learning analytics to measure and support K-12 student engagement: A scoping review2023In: LAK 2023 Conference Proceedings: Towards Trustworthy Learning Analytics - 13th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2023, p. 240-249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Student engagement has been identified as a critical construct for understanding and predicting educational success. However, research has shown that it can be hard to align data-driven insights of engagement with observed and self-reported levels of engagement. Given the emergence and increasing application of learning analytics (LA) within K-12 education, further research is needed to understand how engagement is being conceptualized and measured within LA research. This scoping review identifies and synthesizes literature published between 2011-2022, focused on LA and student engagement in K-12 contexts, and indexed in five international databases. 27 articles and conference papers from 13 different countries were included for review. We found that most of the research was undertaken in middle school years within STEM subjects. The results show that there is a wide discrepancy in researchers' understanding and operationalization of engagement and little evidence to suggest that LA improves learning outcomes and support. However, the potential to do so remains strong. Guidance is provided for future LA engagement research to better align with these goals.

  • 6.
    Buvari, Sebastian
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Iop, Alessandro
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Romero, Mario
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    A student-centered learning analytics dashboard towards course goal achievement in STEM education2023In: Responsive and Sustainable Educational Futures: 18th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2023, Proceedings, Springer Nature , 2023, p. 698-704Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Online learning has become an everyday form of learning for many students across different disciplines, including STEM subjects in the setting of higher education. Studying in these settings requires students to self-regulate their learning to a higher degree as compared to campus-based education. A vital aspect of self-regulated learning is the application of goal-setting strategies. Universities act to support students’ goal-setting through the achievement of course learning outcomes, which work both as a promise and metric of academic achievement. However, a lack of clear integration between course activities and course learning outcomes leaves a dissonance between students’ study efforts and the course progress. This demo study presents a student-centered learning analytics dashboard aimed at assisting students in their achievement of course learning goals in the setting of STEM higher education. The dashboard was designed using a design science methodological approach. Thirty-seven students have contributed to its development and evaluation during different stages of the design process, including the conceptual iterative design and prototyping. The preliminary results show that students found the tool to be easy to use and useful for the achievement of the course goals.

  • 7.
    Bälter, Olle
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Riese, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Effective Feedback for Faster Learning2019In: KTH SoTL 2019, Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose The Open Learning Initiative (OLI) at Carnegie Mellon University and Stanford University showed already in 2008 (Lovett, Meyer & Thille) that by using the OLI methodology, teaching and learning time could be reduced with 50% with maintained results. One key in this methodology is to use online questions with answer-depending feedback. In this workshop we will work with you to formulate OLIinspired questions for your course. Work done/work in progress We have previously worked with online quizzes in several forms (Bälter, Enström & Klingenberg, 2013) and analyzed learning data from OLI courses (Bälter, Zimmaro & Thille, 2018). The online learning material where the questions and feedback is embedded is in campus courses used in flipped classroom settings. In 2017 we ran a pilot of preparatory course in programming based on a Stanford course with OLI methodology in the OpenEdX environment. During the fall semester 2018 questions with answer-depending feedback was added to the course material in an online introductory programming course given in Canvas at KTH. Results/observations/lessons learned While a full implementation of the entire OLI methodology requires infrastructure that is not in place at KTH yet (event handler, analytic engine), the actual learning for the students takes place in the interaction with the questions and their feedback and this part can already be implemented in Canvas at KTH. Take-home message Well-formulated questions with forward focused feedback can dramatically speed up both teaching and 1 2 1 1 2 Page 25 KTH SoTL 2019 (A-K) learning. This workshop brings that speed to your course with practical exercises based on your own course.

  • 8.
    Castro, Mayara Simões de Oliveira
    et al.
    Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil, PE.
    Mello, Rafael Ferreira
    CESAR School, Rua Bione, Cais do Apolo, 220, PE, CEP: 50030-390, Recife, Brazil, Cais do Apolo, 220, PE; Monash University, 20 Exhibition Walk, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia, 20 Exhibition Walk.
    Fiorentino, Giuseppe
    Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil, PE.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Spikol, Daniel
    University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Baars, Martine
    Department of psychology, education and child studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, Netherlands.
    Gašević, Dragan
    Monash University, 20 Exhibition Walk, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia, 20 Exhibition Walk.
    Understanding peer feedback contributions using natural language processing2023In: Responsive and sustainable educational futures: 18th european conference on technology enhanced learning, EC-TEL 2023, proceedings, Springer Nature , 2023, p. 399-414Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peer feedback has been widely used in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) setting to improve students’ engagement with massive courses. Although the peer feedback process increases students’ self-regulatory practice, metacognition, and academic achievement, instructors need to go through large amounts of feedback text data which is much more time-consuming. To address this challenge, the present study proposes an automated content analysis approach to identify relevant categories in peer feedback based on traditional and sequence-based classifiers using TF-IDF and content-independent features. We use a data set from an extensive course (N = 231 students) in the setting of engineering higher education. In particular, a total of 2,444 peer feedback messages were analyzed. The CRF classification model based on the TF-IDF features achieved the best performance. The results illustrate that the ability to scale up the automatic analysis of peer feedback provides new opportunities for student-improved learning and improved teacher support in higher education at scale.

  • 9.
    Chantal, Mutimukwe
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Twizeyimana, J. D.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Students’ information privacy concerns in learning analytics: Towards model development2021In: Nordic Learning Analytics (Summer) Institute 2021: Proceedings of the Nordic Learning Analytics (Summer) Institute Stockholm, Sweden, August 23, 2021, CEUR-WS , 2021, Vol. 2985Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread interest in learning analytics (LA) is associated with increased availability of and access to student data where students’ actions are monitored, recorded, stored and analyzed. The availability and analysis of such data is argued to be crucial for improved learning and teaching. Yet, these data can be exposed to misuse, for example, to be used for commercial purposes, consequently, resulting in information privacy concerns (IPC) of students who are the key stakeholders and data subjects in the LA context. The main objective of this study is to propose a theoretical model to understand the IPC of students in relation to LA. We explore the concept of IPC as a central construct between its two antecedents: perceived privacy vulnerability and perceived privacy control, and its consequences, trusting beliefs and self-disclosure behavior. Although these relationships have been investigated in other contexts, this study aims to offer mainly theoretical insights on how these relationships may be shaped in the context of LA in higher education. Understanding students’ IPC, the related root causes and consequences in LA is the key step to a more comprehensive understanding of privacy issues and the development of effective privacy practices that would protect students’ privacy in the evolving setting of data-driven higher education.

  • 10.
    Dunder, Nora
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Lundborg, Saga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Wong, Jacqueline
    Utrecht University Hekla, Netherlands.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Kattis vs ChatGPT: Assessment and Evaluation of Programming Tasks in the Age of Artificial Intelligence2024In: LAK 2024 Conference Proceedings - 14th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2024, p. 821-827Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AI-powered education technologies can support students and teachers in computer science education. However, with the recent developments in generative AI, and especially the increasingly emerging popularity of ChatGPT, the effectiveness of using large language models for solving programming tasks has been underexplored. The present study examines ChatGPT's ability to generate code solutions at different difficulty levels for introductory programming courses. We conducted an experiment where ChatGPT was tested on 127 randomly selected programming problems provided by Kattis, an automatic software grading tool for computer science programs, often used in higher education. The results showed that ChatGPT independently could solve 19 out of 127 programming tasks generated and assessed by Kattis. Further, ChatGPT was found to be able to generate accurate code solutions for simple problems but encountered difficulties with more complex programming tasks. The results contribute to the ongoing debate on the utility of AI-powered tools in programming education.

  • 11.
    Engström, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bälter, Olle
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Digital Learning.
    Students' Expectations of Learning Analytics in a Swedish Higher Education Institution2022In: Proceedings Of The 2022 Ieee Global Engineering Education Conference (Educon 2022) / [ed] Kallel, I Kammoun, HM Akkari, A Hsairi, L, IEEE , 2022, p. 1975-1980Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential of learning analytics (LA) to improve learning and teaching is high. Yet, the adoption of LA across countries still remains low. One reason behind this is that the LA services often do not adequately meet the expectations and needs of their key stakeholders, namely students and teachers. Presently, there is limited research focusing on the examination of the students' expectations of LA across countries, especially in the Nordic, largely highly digitalized context. To fill this gap, this study examines Swedish students' attitudes of LA in a higher education institution. To do so, the validated survey instrument, Student Expectations of Learning Analytics Questionnaire (SELAQ) has been used. Through the application of SELAQ, the students' ideal and predicted expectations of the LA service and their expectations regarding privacy and ethics were examined. Data were collected in spring 2021. 132 students participated in the study. The results show that the students have higher ideal expectations of LA compared to the predicted ones, especially in regards to privacy and ethics. Also, the findings illustrate that the respondents have low expectations in areas related to the instructor feedback, based on the analytics results. Further, the results demonstrate that the students have high expectations on the part of the university in matters concerning privacy and ethics. In sum, the results from the study can be used as a basis for implementing LA in the selected context.

  • 12.
    Engström, Linda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bälter, Olof
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Digital Learning.
    Students’ Expectations of Learning Analytics in aSwedish Higher Education Institution2022In: IEEE EDUCON2022 Global Engineering Education ConferenceAt: Tunis and hybrid, 2022Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 13. Genlott, Annika Agélii
    et al.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Disseminating digital innovation in school – leading second-order educational change2019In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 24, no 5, p. 3021-3039Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using digital technology effectively in schools requires profound changes in traditional teaching and learning activities. Pedagogical innovations often start small-scale and developing good ideas into shared practice across schools is challenging in many ways, especially if the innovation requires second-order change, i.e. challenges to fundamental beliefs about teaching and learning. This study investigates how a validated pedagogical method requiring integrated Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use and second-order change can be disseminated and sustained over time. We surveyed 92 primary school teachers who at different times over a 5-year period participated in a training course designed to implement an innovative technology-supported teaching method, Write To Learn, across an entire city. We found that organized teacher development programs can drive second-order change, but this requires considerable, active, and sustained effort from leaders at both school and district level. Additional factors include immediate and extended social systems and handling diversity among teachers. The results are useful for both practitioners and researchers since they contribute to a deeper understanding of the opportunities and challenges involved in disseminating effective ICT-based methods that requires profound changes of thinking about teaching and learning to guide the transformation of teaching practice.

  • 14.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Digital Learning.
    Stenbom, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Digital Learning.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Univ Eastern Finland, Kuopio, Finland..
    Jansson, Malin
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Digital Learning.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Examining the Development of K-12 Students' Cognitive Presence over Time: The Case of Online Mathematics Tutoring2023In: ONLINE LEARNING, ISSN 2472-5749, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 252-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we focus on the cognitive presence element of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework. Cognitive presence consists of four categories: Triggering Event, Exploration, Integration, and Resolution. These categories have been described as phases following an idealized logical sequence, although the phases should not be seen as immutable. Few studies have empirically examined how the four categories develop over time during the inquiry process. This article uses learning analytics methods to study transitions between the categories in K-12 online mathematics tutoring. It was statistically most probable that the tutoring sessions started with Triggering Event (95%) and then transitioned to Exploration (51%). The transitions from Exploration to Integration (18%) and Integration to Resolution (21%) achieved statistical significance but were less likely. In fact, it was more likely that the tutoring sessions transitioned from Integration to Exploration (39%) and Resolution to Exploration (36%). In conclusion, the findings suggest that the idealized logical sequence is evident in the data but that other transitions occur as well; especially Exploration recurs throughout the sessions. It seems challenging for students to reach the Integration and Resolution categories. As the CoI framework is commonly adopted in practice, it is important that tutors and educators understand that the categories of cognitive presence will often not play out in idealized ways, underlining their role in supporting how the inquiry process unfolds. In order to gain an improved understanding of the inquiry process, future research is suggested to investigate how the presences and categories of the CoI framework develop over time in different educational settings.

  • 15.
    Hussain, Dena
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Gulliksen, Jan
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Cupitt, R.
    An Agile Framework Towards Inclusion: Supporting Teachers Working in an Inclusive Learning Environment2020In: Human-Centered Software Engineering: 8th IFIP WG 13.2 International Working Conference, HCSE 2020, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, November 30 – December 2, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2020, Vol. 12481, p. 3-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reviews a user-centered agile systems design process, in the context of facilitating an educational environment. It focuses on the design of an ICT tool to support teachers in building an inclusive learning environment for children with Special Educational Needs (SEN), applying the “Index of Inclusion” (IoI) as a framework that directs the development process. The IoI is a set of guidelines that offers schools a supportive process of self-review and development when it comes to SEN; it draws on the views of staff in the educational sector. Extracting a requirements specification from a theoretical framework can be challenging. This study investigates how end-users, clients and stakeholders’ involvement in the development process can be used with the aim of establishing design implications. The outcomes suggest that integration of user experience in the development processes, design ideas, and/or framework can be useful for software developers, specifically when working with diverging needs and perspectives.

  • 16.
    Iop, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Elmi-Terander, Adrian
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Capio Spine Center Stockholm, Löwenströmska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Edström, Erik
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Capio Spine Center Stockholm, Löwenströmska Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Romero, Mario
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    On Extended Reality Objective Performance Metrics for Neurosurgical Training2023In: Responsive and Sustainable Educational Futures: 18th European Conference on Technology Enhanced Learning, EC-TEL 2023, Proceedings, Springer Nature , 2023, p. 573-579Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adoption of Extended Reality (XR) technologies for supporting learning processes is an increasingly popular research topic for a wide variety of domains, including medical education. Currently, within this community, the metrics applied to quantify the potential impact these technologies have on procedural knowledge acquisition are inconsistent. This paper proposes a practical definition of standard metrics for the learning goals in the application of XR to surgical training. Their value in the context of previous research in neurosurgical training is also discussed. Objective metrics of performance include: spatial accuracy and precision, time-to-task completion, number of attempts. The objective definition of what the learner’s aims are enables the creation of comparable XR systems that track progress during training. The first impact is to provide a community-wide metric of progress that allows for consistent measurements. Furthermore, a measurable target opens the possibility for automated performance assessments with constructive feedback.

  • 17.
    Iop, Alessandro
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Francis, Kristi
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Norström, Vilhelm
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Mattias Persson, David
    KTH.
    Wallin, Linus
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS).
    Romero, Mario
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Matviienko, Andrii
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Exploring the Influence of Object Shapes and Colors on Depth Perception in Virtual Reality for Minimally Invasive Neurosurgical Training2024In: CHI 2024 - Extended Abstracts of the 2024 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Sytems, Association for Computing Machinery , 2024, article id 154Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Minimally invasive neurosurgery (MIS) involves inserting a medical instrument, e.g., a catheter, through a small incision to target an area inside the patient's body. Training surgeons to perform MIS is challenging since the surgical site is not directly visible from their perspective. In this paper, we conducted two pilot studies focused on object shapes and colors to collect preliminary results on their influence on depth perception for MIS in Virtual Reality. In the first study (N = 8), participants inserted a virtual catheter into objects of different shapes. In the second study (N = 5), they observed the insertion of a virtual catheter into objects of different colors and backgrounds under different lighting conditions. We found that participants' precision decreased with distance and was lower with the skull shape than with a cube. Moreover, depth perception was higher with blue backgrounds under better lighting conditions.

  • 18.
    Khosravi, Hassan
    et al.
    Institute for Teaching and Learning Innovation, The University of Queensland Research and Education Center for the Learning Sciences, Brisbane, QLD, 4072, Australia.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology.
    Kovanovic, Vitomir
    UniSA Educational Futures, University of South Australia, Campus Central City West, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, SA, 5001, Australia.
    Ferguson, Rebecca
    Institute of Educational Technology, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes, MK 6AA, UK.
    Generative AI and Learning Analytics2023In: Journal of Learning Analytics, E-ISSN 1929-7750, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1-6Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This editorial looks back at the Journal of Learning Analytics (JLA) in 2023 and forward to 2024. Considering the recent proliferation of large language models such as GPT4 and Bard, the first section of this editorial points to the need for robust Generative AI (GenAI) analytics, calling for consideration of how GenAI may impact learning analytics research and practice. The second section looks back over the past year, providing statistics on submissions and considering the cost of publication in an open-access journal.

  • 19.
    Kizilcec, Rene F.
    et al.
    Department of Information Science, Cornell University, United States.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Jivet, Ioana
    Goethe University Frankfurt DIPF, Germany.
    Martinez Mones, Alejandra
    Universidad de Valladolid, Spain.
    Oh, Alice
    Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, South Korea.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Digital Learning.
    Mutimukwe, Chantal
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Scheffel, Maren
    Ruhr University Bochum, Germany.
    The role of gender in students privacy concerns about learning analytics Evidence from five countries2023In: LAK 2023 Conference Proceedings: Towards Trustworthy Learning Analytics - 13th International Conference on Learning Analytics and Knowledge, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2023, p. 545-551Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The protection of students' privacy in learning analytics (LA) applications is critical for cultivating trust and effective implementations of LA in educational environments around the world. However, students' privacy concerns and how they may vary along demographic dimensions that historically influence these concerns have yet to be studied in higher education. Gender differences, in particular, are known to be associated with people's information privacy concerns, including in educational settings. Building on an empirically validated model and survey instrument for student privacy concerns, their antecedents and their behavioral outcomes, we investigate the presence of gender differences in students' privacy concerns about LA. We conducted a survey study of students in higher education across five countries (N = 762): Germany, South Korea, Spain, Sweden and the United States. Using multiple regression analysis, across all five countries, we find that female students have stronger trusting beliefs and they are more inclined to engage in self-disclosure behaviors compared to male students. However, at the country level, these gender differences are significant only in the German sample, for Bachelor's degree students, and for students between the ages of 18 and 24. Thus, national context, degree program, and age are important moderating factors for gender differences in student privacy concerns.

  • 20.
    Kukulska-Hulme, Agnes
    et al.
    The Open University (UK). The Institute of Educational Technology.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Mobile collaborative language learning: State of the Art2018In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 207-218Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a review of mobile collaborative language learning studies published in 2012–16 with the aim to improve understanding of how mobile technologies have been used to support collaborative learning among second and foreign language students. We identify affordances, general pedagogical approaches, second- and foreign-language pedagogical approaches, second language acquisition (SLA) principles and affective designs. The results indicate that affordances such as flexible use, continuity of use, timely feedback, personalisation, socialisation, self-evaluation, active participation, peer coaching, sources of inspiration outdoors and cultural authenticity have been emphasised. These affordances were found to be particularly suited to promote social constructivism, which is often sustained by game-based, task based and seamless learning. In terms of second and foreign language pedagogical approaches, the combination of individualised and collaborative learning prevails, along with task based, situated and communicative language learning, and raising orthographic awareness. Among SLA principles, negotiation of meaning and opportunities for feedback are highlighted. Affective aspects include increases in motivation, engagement and enjoyment, mutual encouragement, reduction in nervousness and embarrassment, and a few negative reports of risk of distraction, safety concerns, feelings of uncertainty and technical problems. The reviewed studies present a convincing case for the benefits of collaboration in mobile language learning.

  • 21.
    Lundström, Nicole
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Öberg, Lena Maria
    Mid Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Teachers’ Expectations of Learning Analytics from a Value-Based Perspective2023In: Open Science in Engineering - Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Remote Engineering and Virtual Instrumentation, Springer Nature , 2023, p. 811-822Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning Analytics (LA) is an established field of research and practice. Yet, there is still scarce evidence of LA on improved learning and teaching. In this regard, researchers highlight a need to involve not only students but also teachers in the development of LA systems to ensure that LA is implemented effectively. Earlier research has pointed out several ethical issues that are important to consider when designing and using LA services. Ethics are interrelated with stakeholders’ values since the values represent things that are seen as important to individuals. These values are rarely considered when designing LA systems; it is problematic since it may influence the design and the implementation of effective LA solutions in a negative way. The aim of this study is therefore to explore which values teachers consider important in relation to LA systems to be used in higher education. The selected and adapted set of envisioning cards was used during an online workshop with 11 teachers. The results indicate that there are several critical values that are important for teachers in relation to LA systems, including variation, personalization, flexibility, insight, transparency, efficiency, and trust. By taking these values into consideration when designing LA systems, teachers’ needs can be better met in the setting of higher education.

  • 22. López-Pernas, Sonsoles
    et al.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Yliopistokatu 2, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Putting It All Together:Combining Learning Analytics Methods and Data Sources to Understand Students’ Approaches to Learning Programming2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 9, p. 4825-4843Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning programming is a complex and challenging task for many students. It involves both understanding theoretical concepts and acquiring practical skills. Hence, analyzing learners’ data from online learning environments alone fails to capture the full breadth of students’ actions if part of their learning process takes place elsewhere. Moreover, existing studies on learning analytics applied to programming education have mainly relied on frequency analysis to classify students according to their approach to programming or to predict academic achievement. However, frequency analysis provides limited insights into the individual time-related characteristics of the learning process. The current study examines students’ strategies when learning programming, combining data from the learning management system and from an automated assessment tool used to support students while solving the programming assignments. The study included the data of 292 engineering students (228 men and 64 women, aged 20–26) from the two aforementioned sources. To gain an in-depth understanding of students’ learning process as well as of the types of learners, we used learning analytics methods that account for the temporal order of learning actions. Our results show that students have special preferences for specific learning resources when learning programming, namely, slides that support search, and copy and paste. We also found that videos are relatively less consumed by students, especially while working on programming assignments. Lastly, students resort to course forums to seek help only when they struggle.

  • 23. Mavroudi, A.
    et al.
    Almeida, T.
    Frennert, S.
    Laaksolahti, Jarmo
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    A card game for designing activities for technology-enhanced learning in higher education2022In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 2367-2383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of providing mechanisms and tools that effectively support the transition from implicit to explicit representations of Learning Design has been emphasised by previous research in the field of Technology-Enhanced Learning (TEL). In addition, the benefits of Game-based learning approaches have been long documented in the educational research literature. The paper presents the design, implementation and evaluation of a card game that aims to support the design process of TEL activities in higher education. The game was tested by a group of 36 students and tutors (n = 36) in higher education during an interactive workshop. Feedback was asked by the participants using an anonymous survey. The results reveal that the participants a) are satisfied with the game process, b) appreciate the groupwork and interaction taking place, and c) believe that they used their communication and collaboration skills. The paper includes the description of the outputs of a group (i.e., the cards selected for their TEL scenario and their actual TEL scenario) to exemplify that it is possible to use the game in order to elicit or diagnose existing LD knowledge from the game participants. The paper concludes on the usefulness of the approach suggested, limitations, and plans for future work.

  • 24. Mutimukwe, C.
    et al.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Oberg, L. -M
    Cerratto-Pargman, T.
    Students' privacy concerns in learning analytics: Model development2022In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 932-951Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding students' privacy concerns is an essential first step toward effective privacy-enhancing practices in learning analytics (LA). In this study, we develop and validate a model to explore the students' privacy concerns (SPICE) regarding LA practice in higher education. The SPICE model considers privacy concerns as a central construct between two antecedents—perceived privacy risk and perceived privacy control, and two outcomes—trusting beliefs and non-self-disclosure behaviours. To validate the model, data through an online survey were collected, and 132 students from three Swedish universities participated in the study. Partial least square results show that the model accounts for high variance in privacy concerns, trusting beliefs, and non-self-disclosure behaviours. They also illustrate that students' perceived privacy risk is a firm predictor of their privacy concerns. The students' privacy concerns and perceived privacy risk were found to affect their non-self-disclosure behaviours. Finally, the results show that the students' perceptions of privacy control and privacy risks determine their trusting beliefs. The study results contribute to understand the relationships between students' privacy concerns, trust and non-self-disclosure behaviours in the LA context. A set of relevant implications for LA systems' design and privacy-enhancing practices' development in higher education is offered. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic Addressing students' privacy is critical for large-scale learning analytics (LA) implementation. Understanding students' privacy concerns is an essential first step to developing effective privacy-enhancing practices in LA. Several conceptual, not empirically validated frameworks focus on ethics and privacy in LA. What this paper adds The paper offers a validated model to explore the nature of students' privacy concerns in LA in higher education. It provides an enhanced theoretical understanding of the relationship between privacy concerns, trust and self-disclosure behaviour in the LA context of higher education. It offers a set of relevant implications for LA researchers and practitioners. Implications for practice and/or policy Students' perceptions of privacy risks and privacy control are antecedents of students' privacy concerns, trust in the higher education institution and the willingness to share personal information. Enhancing students' perceptions of privacy control and reducing perceptions of privacy risks are essential for LA adoption and success. Contextual factors that may influence students' privacy concerns should be considered. 

  • 25.
    Mutimukwe, Chantal
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Han, Shengnan
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Cerratto-Pargman, Teresa
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Privacy as Contextual Integrity in Online Proctoring Systems in Higher Education: A scoping review2023In: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, HICSS 2023, IEEE Computer Society , 2023, p. 74-82Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Privacy is one of the key challenges to the adoption and implementation of online proctoring systems (OPS) in higher education. To better understand this challenge, we adopt privacy as contextual integrity theory to conduct a scoping review of 17 papers. The results show different types of students' personal and sensitive information are collected and disseminated; this raises considerable privacy concerns. As well as the governing principles including transparency and fairness, consent and choice, information minimization, accountability, and information security and accuracy have been identified to address privacy problems. This study notifies a need to clarify how these principles should be implemented and sustained, and what privacy concerns and actors they relate to. Further, it calls for the need to clarify the responsibility of key actors in enacting and sustaining responsible adoption and use of OPS in higher education.

  • 26. Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Ebner, Martin
    Ifenthaler, Dirk
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Malmberg, Joana
    Khalil, Mohammad
    Bruun, Jesper
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Conde González, M
    Papamitsiou, Z
    Berthelsen, O
    Efforts in Europe for Data-Driven Improvement of Education: A Review of Learning Analytics Research in Six Countries2019In: International Journal of Learning Analytics and Artificial Intelligence for Education, ISSN 2706-7564, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-27Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Nouri, Jalal
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för data- och systemvetenskap.
    Ebner, Martin
    Ifenthaler, Dirk
    Saqr, Mohammed
    Malmberg, Jonna
    Khalil, Mohammad
    Bruun, Jesper
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Conde González, Miguel Ángel
    Papamitsiou, Zacharoula
    Berthelsen, Ulf Dalvad
    Efforts in Europe for Data-Driven Improvement of Education – A review of learning analytics research in seven countries2019In: International journal of learning analytics and artificial intelligence for education, ISSN 2706-7564, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 8-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information and communication technologies are increasingly mediating learning and teaching practices as well as how educational institutions are handling their administrative work. As such, students and teachers are leaving large amounts of digital footprints and traces in various educational apps and learning management platforms, and educational administrators register various processes and outcomes in digital administrative systems. It is against such a background we in recent years have seen the emergence of the fast-growing and multi-disciplinary field of learning analytics. In this paper, we examine the research efforts that have been conducted in the field of learning analytics in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Norway, Germany, Spain, and Sweden. More specifically, we report on developed national policies, infrastructures and competence centers, as well as major research projects and developed research strands within the selected countries. The main conclusions of this paper are that the work of researchers around Europe has not led to national adoption or European level strategies for learning analytics. Furthermore, most countries have not established national policies for learners’ data or guidelines that govern the ethical usage of data in research or education. We also conclude, that learning analytics research on pre-university level to high extent have been overlooked. In the same vein, learning analytics has not received enough focus form national and European national bodies. Such funding is necessary for taking steps towards data-driven development of education.

  • 28.
    Pargman, Teresa Cerratto
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Comp & Syst Sci, Postbox 7003, SE-16407 Kista, Sweden.;Digital Futures, Osquars Backe 5, floor2, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    McGrath, Cormac
    Digital Futures, Osquars Backe 5, floor2, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Educ, Postbox 106 91, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID. Digital Futures, Osquars Backe 5, floor2, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Knight, Simon
    Digital Futures, Osquars Backe 5, floor2, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Technol Sydney, TD Sch, POB 123, Broadway, NSW 2007, Australia..
    New Vistas on Responsible Learning Analytics: A Data Feminist Perspective2023In: JOURNAL OF LEARNING ANALYTICS, ISSN 1929-7750, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 133-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of ethics in learning analytics (LA) frameworks and guidelines is predominantly on procedural elements of data management and accountability. Another, less represented focus is on the duty to act and LA as a moral practice. Data feminism as a critical theoretical approach to data science practices may offer LA research and practitioners a valuable lens through which to consider LA as a moral practice. This paper examines what data feminism can offer the LA community. It identifies critical questions for further developing and enabling a responsible stance in LA research and practice taking one particular case - algorithmic decision-making - as a point of departure.

  • 29. Peeters, Ward
    et al.
    Abdelgalil, Mohammed Saqr
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Applying learning analytics to map students’ self-regulated learning tactics in an academic writing course2020Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Peeters, Ward
    et al.
    Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC, 3800, Australia, Wellington Road; Kanda University of International Studies, 1 Chome-4-1 Wakaba, Chiba, 261-0014, Japan, 1 Chome-4-1 Wakaba.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Spikol, Daniel
    University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 1, 2100, Copenhagen, Denmark, Universitetsparken 1.
    Self-regulation in Foreign Language Students’ Collaborative Discourse for Academic Writing: An Explorative Study on Epistemic Network Analysis2023In: Advances in Quantitative Ethnography - 4th International Conference, ICQE 2022, Proceedings, Springer Nature , 2023, p. 254-269Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) settings for academic writing have become a staple in foreign language classrooms in higher education. These settings allow learners to discuss their output, assist others and dialogically assess their learning progress. To successfully do so, however, learners need to be able to effectively self-regulate their learning process. The multiple contingencies of self-regulated learning (SRL) in online collaborative writing settings have hitherto received limited attention in research. Recent advances in learning analytics and quantitative ethnography, nevertheless, offer new opportunities to analyse learner discourse and reveal previously underexplored aspects of SRL. Through the use of epistemic network analysis (ENA), this study examines structural patterns in students’ use of SRL strategies and meta-strategies, and models their co-occurrence. Data were collected from a Facebook group integrated into an academic writing course for first-year foreign language majors of English (N = 123). The results illustrate how students engage in cognitive and meta-cognitive discourse, and show that other strategies and meta-strategies in the network mainly occur in isolation. The use of ENA, in addition, reveals the different contingencies in the SRL process over time. This study contributes to the fields of quantitative ethnography, learning analytics and SRL by: 1. Showing how ENA can add to our understanding of the SRL process, and 2. by discussing which self-regulatory strategies and meta-strategies are predominantly used in CSCL settings for academic writing, which ones deserve additional attention when integrating CSCL settings in this context, and what educational interventions can be designed as support.

  • 31.
    Rauh, Sebastian Felix
    et al.
    Heilbronn Univ, UniTyLab, Heilbronn, Germany..
    Koller, Marius
    Heilbronn Univ, UniTyLab, Heilbronn, Germany..
    Schafer, Philip
    Heilbronn Univ, UniTyLab, Heilbronn, Germany..
    Meixner, Gerrit
    Heilbronn Univ, UniTyLab, Heilbronn, Germany..
    Bogdan, Cristian M
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    MR On-SeT: A Mixed Reality Occupational Health and Safety Training for World-Wide Distribution2021In: International Journal: Emerging Technologies in Learning, ISSN 1868-8799, E-ISSN 1863-0383, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 163-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current generation of dedicated Mixed Reality (MR) devices can be considered as the first generation, which is truly mobile while also being capable of sufficient tracking and rendering. These improvements offer new opportunities for the on-set use of MR devices enabling new ways of using MR. However, these new use cases raise challenges for the design and orchestration of MR applications as well as how these new technologies influence their field of application. In this article, we present MR On-SeT, a MR occupational health and safety training application, which is based on the experiences of an operational division of a world-wide operating German company. The intended purpose of MR On-SeT is to increase employees' awareness of potential hazards at industrial workplaces by using it in occupational health and safety training sessions. Since the application is used at various locations throughout the company's world-wide subsidiaries, we were able to evaluate it through an expert survey with the occupational health and safety managers of seven plants in France, Germany, Japan, and Romania. They reported the condensed experience of around 540 training sessions collected within three months. The purpose of the evaluation was twofold: 1. to understand their perceived attitudes towards the application-in-use, and 2. to collect feedback they received from respondents in training sessions. The results suggest that MR On-SeT can be used to extend current, predominantly theoretical, methods of teaching occupational health and safety at work, which also motivates experienced employees to actively engage in the training sessions. Based on the findings, several design implications are proposed.

  • 32. Saqr, M.
    et al.
    Jovanovic, J.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Gašević, D.
    Is there order in the mess?: A single paper meta-analysis approach to identification of predictors of success in learning analytics2022In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174X, Vol. 47, no 12, p. 2370-2391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictors of student academic success do not always replicate well across different learning designs, subject areas, or educational institutions. This suggests that characteristics of a particular discipline and learning design have to be carefully considered when creating predictive models in order to scale up learning analytics. This study aimed to examine if and to what extent frequently used predictors of study success are portable across a homogenous set of courses. The research was conducted in an integrated blended problem-based curriculum with trace data (n = 2,385 students) from 50 different course offerings across four academic years. We applied the statistical method of single paper meta-analysis to combine correlations of several indicators with students’ success. Total activity and the forum indicators exhibited the highest prediction intervals, where the former represented proxies of the overall engagement with online tasks, and the latter with online collaborative learning activities. Indicators of lecture reading (frequency of lecture view) showed statistically insignificant prediction intervals and, therefore, are less likely to be portable across course offerings. The findings show moderate amounts of variability both within iterations of the same course and across courses. The results suggest that the use of the meta-analytic statistical method for the examination of study success indicators across courses with similar learning design and subject area can offer valuable quantitative means for the identification of predictors that reasonably well replicate and consequently can be reliably portable in the future. 

  • 33. Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Fors, Uno
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Alsuhaibani, Marya
    Alharbi, Amjad
    Alharbi, Mohammed
    Alamer, Abdullah
    How Networking and Social Capital Influence Performance:The Role of Long-Term Ties2021In: / [ed] Antonyuk, Artem; Basov, Nikita, Springer International Publishing , 2021, p. 335-346Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    Univ Eastern Finland, Sch Comp, Joensuu Campus,Vliopistokatu 2,POB 111, Joensuu 80101, Finland..
    Peeters, Ward
    Univ Antwerp, Prinsstr 13, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.;Kanda Univ Int Studies, Mihama Ward, 1 Chome 4-1 Wakaba, Chiba 2610014, Japan..
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    The relational, co-temporal, contemporaneous, and longitudinal dynamics of self-regulation for academic writing2021In: RESEARCH AND PRACTICE IN TECHNOLOGY ENHANCED LEARNING, ISSN 1793-7078, Vol. 16, no 1, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Writing in an academic context often requires students in higher education to acquire a new set of skills while familiarising themselves with the goals, objectives and requirements of the new learning environment. Students' ability to continuously self-regulate their writing process, therefore, is seen as a determining factor in their learning success. In order to study students' self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviour, research has increasingly been tapping into learning analytics (LA) methods in recent years, making use of multimodal trace data that can be obtained from students writing and working online. Nevertheless, little is still known about the ways students apply and govern SRL processes for academic writing online, and about how their SRL behaviour might change over time. To provide new perspectives on the use of LA approaches to examine SRL, this study applied a range of methods to investigate what they could tell us about the evolution of SRL tactics and strategies on a relational, co-temporal, contemporaneous and longitudinal level. The data originates from a case study in which a private Facebook group served as an online collaboration space in a first-year academic writing course for foreign language majors of English. The findings show that learners use a range of SRL tactics to manage their writing tasks and that different tactic can take up key positions in this process over time. Several shifts could be observed in students' behaviour, from mainly addressing content-specific topics to more form-specific and social ones. Our results have also demonstrated that different methods can be used to study the relational, co-temporal, contemporaneous, and longitudinal dynamics of self-regulation in this regard, demonstrating the wealth of insights LA methods can bring to the table.

  • 35.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    University of Eastern FinlandJoensuuFinland.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Using diffusion network analytics to examine and support knowledge construction in cscl settings2020In: Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2020, Vol. 12315, p. 158-172Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The analysis of CSCL needs to offer actionable insights about how knowledge construction between learners is built, facilitated and/or constrained, with the overall aim to help support knowledge (co-)construction. To address this, the present study demonstrates how network analysis - in a form of diffusion-based visual and quantitative information exchange metrics - can be effectively employed to: 1. visually map the learner networks of information exchange, 2. identify and define student roles in the collaborative process, and 3. test the association between information exchange metrics and performance. The analysis is based on a dataset of a course with a CSCL module (n = 129 students). For each student, we calculated the centrality indices that reflect the roles played in information exchange, range of influence, and connectivity. Students’ roles were analysed employing unsupervised clustering techniques to identify groups that share similar characteristics in regard to their emerging roles in the information exchange process. The results of this study have proved that diffusion-based visual and quantitative metrics can be effectively employed and are valuable methods to visually map the student networks of information exchange as well as to detect and define students’ roles in the collaborative learning process. Furthermore, the results demonstrated a positive and statistically significant association between diffusion metrics and academic performance.

  • 36.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Nouri, J.
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Oyelere, S.
    University of Eastern Finland, Finland.
    Multimodal temporal network analysis to improve learner support and teaching2020In: CEUR Workshop Proceedings, CEUR-WS , 2020, p. 30-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A learning process involves interactions between learners, teachers, machines and formal and/or informal learning environments. These interactions are relational, interdependent and temporal. The emergence of rich multimodal learner data suggests the development of methods that can capture time-stamped data from multiple sources (e.g., heart rate data and eye tracking data), thus allowing researchers to examine learning as a continuous process rather than a static one. This leads us to propose a new methodological approach, the Multimodal Temporal Network Analysis to: i) measure temporal learner data deriving from the relevant interactions and ii) ultimately support learners and their teachers in learning and/or teaching activities.

  • 37.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS). University of Eastern Finland, FI-80100 Joensuu, Finland.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Peeters, Ward
    Kanda University of International Studies, 1-4-1, Wakaba, Mihama-ku Chiba-shi, Chiba-ken, Japan.
    Using Psychological Networks to Reveal the Interplay between Foreign Language Students’ Self-Regulated Learning Tactics2021In: Harnessing the Potentials of Technology to Support Self-Directed Language Learning in Online Learning Settings (STELLA 2020) / [ed] Viberg, O., Mynard, J., Peeters, W., & Saqr, M., CEUR , 2021, p. 12-23Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students’ ability to self-regulate their individual and collaborative learning activities while performing challenging academic writing tasks is instrumental for their academic success. Presently, the majority of such learning activities often occur in computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) settings, in which students generate digital learner data. Examining this data may provide valuable insights into their self-regulated learning (SRL) behaviours. Such an understanding is important for educators to provide adequate support. Recent advances in the fields of learning analytics (LA) and SRL offer new ways to analyse such data and understand students’ dynamic SRL processes. This study uses a novel psychological network method, i.e., Gaussian Graphical Models, to model the interactions between the students’ SRL tactics and how they influence language learning in a CSCL setting for academic writing. The data for this study was generated by first-year foreign language students (n=119) who used a Facebook group as a collaborative space for peer review in an academic writing course. The theoretical lens of strategic self-regulated language learning was applied. The findings show a strong connection between the following tactics: writing text, social bonding and acknowledging. Strong connections between students’ reflective activities and their application of feedback, as well as between acculturating, organising and using resources were also identified. Centrality measures showed that acculturating is most strongly connected to all other tactics, followed by acknowledging and social bonding. Expected influence centrality measures showed acculturating and social interactions to be strong influencers. Students’ academic performance and their use of tactics showed little correlation.

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  • 38.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    et al.
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu campus, Yliopistokatu 2, fi-80100, Joensuu, Finland ; Department of Computer and System Sciences (DSV), Stockholm University, Borgarfjordsgatan 12, PO Box 7003, SE-164 07, Kista, Sweden.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Vartiainen, Henriikka
    School of Applied Educational Science and Teacher Education, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Yliopistokatu 2, fi-80100, Joensuu, Finland.
    Capturing the participation and social dimensions of computer-supported collaborative learning through social network analysis: which method and measures matter?2020In: International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, ISSN 1556-1607, E-ISSN 1556-1615, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 227-248Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of digital learning tools and platforms in formal and informal learning settings has provided broad access to large amounts of learner data, the analysis of which has been aimed at understanding students' learning processes, improving learning outcomes, providing learner support as well as teaching. Presently, such data has been largely accessed from discussion forums in online learning management systems and has been further analyzed through the application of social network analysis (SNA). Nevertheless, the results of these analyses have not always been reproducible. Since such learning analytics (LA) methods rely on measurement as a first step of the process, the robustness of selected techniques for measuring collaborative learning activities is critical for the transparency, reproducibility and generalizability of the results. This paper presents findings from a study focusing on the validation of critical centrality measures frequently used in the fields of LA and SNA research. We examined how different network configurations (i.e., multigraph, weighted, and simplified) influence the reproducibility and robustness of centrality measures as indicators of student learning in CSCL settings. In particular, this research aims to contribute to the provision of robust and valid methods for measuring and better understanding of the participation and social dimensions of collaborative learning. The study was conducted based on a dataset of 12 university courses. The results show that multigraph configuration produces the most consistent and robust centrality measures. The findings also show that degree centralities calculated with the multigraph methods are reliable indicators for students' participatory efforts as well as a consistent predictor of their performance. Similarly, Eigenvector centrality was the most consistent centrality that reliably represented social dimension, regardless of the network configuration. This study offers guidance on the appropriate network representation as well as sound recommendations about how to reliably select the appropriate metrics for each dimension.

  • 39.
    Simonsen, Henrik Kohler
    et al.
    Copenhagen Business Sch, Dept Management Soc & Commun, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Supporting Second Language Learners through SKANDIBOT: A Lexicographical Design Approach2022In: Proceedings - 2022 International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies, ICALT 2022 / [ed] Chang, M Chen, NS Dascalu, M Sampson, DG Tlili, A Trausan-Matu, S, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) , 2022, p. 239-241Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant professional language learners need to be supported in acquiring a second language effectively beyond the classroom. These learners frequently lack opportunities to participate in language classes due to full-time jobs. Yet, quick acquisition of the target language is a needed prerequisite for their successful integration into job settings and the host society. To assist these learners in their smooth acquisition of the target language, this study takes advantage of the recent developments in artificial intelligence and presents the design of a chatbot, called SKANDIBOT aimed at fostering second language learners' conversational practice in professional work settings of Sweden and Denmark. The results of this work-in-progress study indicate that both healthcare and learning professionals perceive the overall interaction design of SKANDIBOT and the information offered in it to be useful for their second language acquisition.

  • 40. Svela, Alexander
    et al.
    Nouri, Jalal
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Zhang, Lechen
    A Systematic Review of Tablet Technology in Mathematics Education2019In: International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, E-ISSN 1865-7923, Vol. 13, no 8, p. 139-158Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2019, the mobile learning body of knowledge is extensive and much is known about the technology impacts and affordances of mobile devices in educational settings. A particular focus has now shifted toward specific tech- nologies in specific subjects. Mathematics is one such subject and tablets are one such technology that is gaining attention. This systematic review represent- ing the latest generation of tablet technology within the tablet-mediated learning in mathematics body of knowledge sought to derive evidence that supported questions into (a) what math sub-disciplines were covered, (b) what technology (application/hardware) was utilized, and (c) what pedagogical approaches were deployed in educational settings. This included analysis of the (d) advantages and (e) disadvantages present in those elements. Thirty-nine relevant articles were collected from various academic technology and educational databases. The results demonstrate that tablets are being predominantly deployed in vari- ous sub-disciplines such as Arithmetic, Computation, and Geometry with the iPad as the dominant choice for tablet hardware/applications. Pedagogical ap- proaches lean heavily on game-based learning, environment interaction, and special needs support. Technological advantages include increased collabora- tion and mathematics engagement enabled by tablet mobility and a high poten- tial for customization of solutions. Developers, teachers, and researchers need to be informed of potential challenges in designing content for tablet technology deployments in mathematics.

  • 41.
    Viberg, Olga
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Introduction to ‘Machine Learning and Human Learning’2022In: Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems, Springer Nature , 2022, Vol. 456, p. 487-489Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the section on ‘machine learning and human learning’ presents a short overview of machine learning in higher education, including recent developments such as deep learning approaches in the field. It also highlights a need for the further development of human-centered approach to the design of machine learning support tools. Further, it introduces the reader to the three chapters included in this section.

  • 42.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro University School of Business, Örebro, Sweden.
    The Role of Self-Regulation and Structuration in Mobile Learning2019In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The roles of self-regulation and structuration in mobile learning are poorly understood. This study therefore examines these aspects in relation to the design and use of mobile technology in an online language learning setting. The online self-regulated learning (SRL) instrument was adopted to measure students' perceived level of self-regulation. Structuration Theory was applied as the theoretical lens for understanding students' technology-mediated learning practices. The results show that several factors defining learners' level of self-regulation were correlated with their mode of structuration. The analysis indicates that students' SRL characteristics are correlated with their structures regarding their technologies-in-practice and their practical assumptions about effectiveness in learning. An implication for practice is that students' SRL dimensions need to be taken into account when designing educational software for mobile technology. For research, this study has demonstrated the explanatory power of ST and how students' structures are related to their SRL characteristics.

  • 43.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Andersson, Annika
    Örebro Universitet.
    Wiklund, Matilda
    Stockholm University.
    Designing for sustainable mobile learning – re-evaluating the concepts “formal” and “informal”2018In: Interactive Learning Environments, ISSN 1049-4820, E-ISSN 1744-5191, no 46739192417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Practitioners designing for mobile learning (mLearning) and scholars exploring the same are faced with the challenge of planning for and understanding a variety of ways and places of learning. This study focuses on one crucial distinction concerning this; that of formal and informal learning. Through the analysis of contemporary research literature, we found that informal learning is represented as more enriching than formal learning. We also identified that some representations of informal learning, such as subconscious and tacit, actually gainsay the idea of designing the learning process. Based on these results we propose a number of implications to enhance pedagogical sustainability in mLearning design. We argue that in order to fuse informal and formal learning, mLearning designers need to offer more clear definitions of the concepts “formal” and “informal”; they need to omit some design aspects to the learners themselves, or to offer a design in form of a learning path that students themselves can customise according to their learning habits, routines, and preferences.

  • 44.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Berg, Lovisa
    Dalarna University.
    Blended Language Learning: A Thematic Overview of the Most Highly Cited Research2018In: Blended Language Learning: International Perspectives on Innovative Practice / [ed] Dr. Agnieszka Palalas, China Central Radio & TV University Press Co. Ltd. , 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter sets out to give an introduction to the blended language learning (BLL) research domain through an analysis of the most impactful BLL research as measured by Harzing’s Publish and Perish software. After an initial outline of the field of BLL and its development, the chapter discusses the research methods and approaches applied in the selected articles and demonstrates that a majority of the articles use a descriptive approach and the dominating method is interpretative studies. The chapter then goes on to analyse the themes of the articles and divides them in to six sections: students’ readiness for BLL, teachers’ perceptions of BLL, learner autonomy and self-regulated learning, second language acquisition, technology and BLL design. Finally, we offer future research directions in order to increase the sustainability of BLL, both as the field of practice and the research area. Overall the 41 reviewed studies present a substantial case for the benefits of BLL. However, to ensure the sustainability of BLL design and thus the generalisability of the research findings further BLL designers and researchers need to apply firm theories.

  • 45.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Bälter, Olof
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Hedin, Björn
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Riese, Emma
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.
    Mavroudi, Anna
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Faculty pedagogical developers as enablers of technology‐enhanced learning2018In: British Journal of Educational Technology, ISSN 0007-1013, E-ISSN 1467-8535, p. 1-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the integration of digital technologies in higher education continues to increase, there is a need to understand how to best support university teachers as designers of technology‐enhanced learning (TEL) in order to support students to achieve academic success. In this study, we have examined the Faculty Pedagogical Developer Initiative at KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Sweden, an innovative project to support a bottom‐up change process of teachers as designers of TEL, with the intent to strengthen the professional pedagogical development for the faculty. Data were collected from interviews and official documents. Actor–network theory was applied for the analysis. The results suggest that the initiative stimulated both practical implementation of digital technology in educational programmes and also spurred a debate about teachers as designers of TEL between these pedagogical developers and other teachers across different schools and subjects at KTH. However, there are important social, organisational and technical challenges that should be considered when developing support for university teachers as designers of TEL. This paper concludes that this process requires a deep understanding of four interrelated elements: information, technology, organisation and social arrangements.

  • 46.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Engström, Linda
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Saqr, Mohammed
    School of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Hrastinski, Stefan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Learning, Digital Learning.
    Exploring students’ expectations of learning analytics: A person-centered approach2022In: Education and Information Technologies: Official Journal of the IFIP technical committee on Education, ISSN 1360-2357, E-ISSN 1573-7608, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 8561-8581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to successfully implement learning analytics (LA), we need a better understanding of student expectations of such services. Yet, there is still a limited body of research about students’ expectations across countries. Student expectations of LA have been predominantly examined from a view that perceives students as a group of individuals representing homogenous views. This study examines students’ ideal (i.e., representing their wanted outcomes) and predicted expectations (i.e., unveiling what they realistically expect the LA service is most likely to be) of LA by employing a person-centered approach that allows exploring the heterogeneity that may be found in student expectations. We collected data from 132 students in the setting of Swedish higher education by means of an online survey. Descriptive statistics and Latent Class Analysis (LCA) were used for the analysis. Our findings show that students’ ideal expectations of LA were considerably higher compared to their predicted expectations. The results of the LCA exhibit that the Swedish students’ expectations of LA were heterogeneous, both regarding their privacy concerns and their expectations of LA services. The findings of this study can be seen as a baseline of students’ expectations or a cross-sectional average, and be used to inform student-centered implementation of LA in higher education. 

  • 47.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.
    Glassey, RichardKTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Theoretical Computer Science, TCS.Bälter, OlofKTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Human Centered Technology, Media Technology and Interaction Design, MID.Spikol, DanielUniversity of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Nordic Learning Analytics (Summer) Institute 20212021Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present event is the 4th Nordic Learning Analytics Institute (NLASI) (1st NLASI was held in Bergen (Norway) in 2017, 2d - in Copenhagen (Denmark) in 2018, 3d- in Tallin (Estonia) in 2019). There were 15 papers submitted for peer-review to NLASI 2021. Out of these, 8 papers were accepted for this volume, 7 as regular papers and 1 as a short paper. NLASI 2021 was sponsored by Digital Futures and the Digitalisation Platform at KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

  • 48.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University.
    Cross-cultural analysis of users’ attitudes toward the use of mobile devices in second and foreign language learning in higher education: A case from China and Sweden2013In: Computers and education, ISSN 0360-1315, E-ISSN 1873-782X, Vol. 69, p. 169-180Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined the current state of students’ attitudes toward mobile technology use in and for second and foreign language learning in higher education. Moreover, the study investigated if age, gender or cultural factors affect these attitudes. A total of 345 students from two in many aspects different countries, China (Yunnan University) and Sweden (Dalarna University) participated in this study. To access learners’ perceptions toward mobile technology use, we employed Kearney’s pedagogical framework to mobile learning from a socio-cultural perspective (Kearney, Schuck, Burden, & Aubusson, 2012). Hofstede’s cultural dimensions were used to approach students’ cultural views, as these dimensions represent some values – aspects of culture – that may affect attitudes toward technology and learning individually as well as in combination. The findings show the respondents’ attitudes toward mobile learning are very positive with individualization being most positive (83%) followed by collaboration (74%), and authenticity (73%). The statistical analysis indicates that Hofstede’s factors cannot explain the differences in mobile-assisted language learning (MALL) attitudes in the chosen sample. Among the personal factors, gender is identified to be a predictor to explain the differences in students’ attitudes toward MALL. This study shows that technology itself seems to be the most important culture-shaping factor, more important than culture inherited from the physical environment, and more important than age.

  • 49.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Systematising the Field of Mobile Assisted Language Learning2013In: International Journal of Mobile and Blended Learning, ISSN 1941-8647, E-ISSN 1941-8655, Vol. 5, no 4, p. 72-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     This study provides a systematic review of mobile assisted language (MALL) research within the specifc area of second language acquisition (SLA) during the period of 2005-2012 in terms of research approaches, theories and methods, technology, and the linguistic knowledge and skills' results. The fndings show a shift from the prevailing SMS-based language learning in 2005-2008 towards the use of more advanced multimedia and intelligent learning systems in the last years. Many highly cited studies focus on design of mobile language learning systems and experimental evaluation of their effectiveness. Studies often draw on mature pedagogic models and methods. However, descriptive and small-scale experimental studies dominate. In terms of theoretical approaches and frameworks, there is a lack of specifc reference to mobile learning conceptual and theoretical models, which makes it diffcult to distinguish any specifc mobile learning theories from other learning theories. Research has so far paid most attention to learners' vocabulary acquisition.

  • 50.
    Viberg, Olga
    et al.
    Dalarna University, Sweden; Örebro University, Sweden.
    Grönlund, Åke
    Örebro University.
    Understanding students’ learning practices: challenges for design and integration of mobile technology into distance education2017In: Learning, Media & Technology, ISSN 1743-9884, Vol. 42, no 3, p. 357-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the design requirements for mobile applications for second language learning in online/distance higher education settings. We investigate how students use technology and how they perceive that these technologies-in-practice facilitate their language learning. Structuration Theory is used for the analysis. Results show that design needs to consider that (i) students use their private mobile technologies frequently when conducting self-initiated learning tasks, (ii) students’ mobile technologies-in-practice are important, and course designers should design materials and tools for such use practices, and (iii) students prefer to work on their own due to the limited time they want to devote to their learning. Consequently, in regard to the pervasive nature of mobile technology integration in society and into students’ habitual use, they need various software tools on such devices to support individual learning.

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