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  • 1.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Iital, A
    Loigu, E
    Changes in the Nutrient Mass Balance of Haapsalu Bay, Baltic Sea, Estonia in Relation to the Establishment of a Sewage Treatment Plant2008In: Hydrobiology, In PressArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Brandt, Nils
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Victorova, E. V
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Ecological Researchers Part 1.: Environmental Sensitivity Monitoring of the Coastal Zone in Primorsk Area2007Report (Other academic)
  • 3. Flaga, A.
    et al.
    Stypka, T.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Polish-Swedish Environmental Management Course: An Integrated Tool for Teaching Sustainable Development2005In: Commiting Universities to Sustainable Development, Graz, Austria: RNS TU Graz , 2005, p. 379-384Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Franzen, Johan.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Infantes, Eduardo
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Marine Sci, Kristineberg Stn, Kristineberg 566, SE-45178 Fiskebackskil, Sweden..
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Beach-cast as biofertiliser in the Baltic Sea region-potential limitations due to cadmium-content2019In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 169, p. 20-26Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macroalgal mass blooms and accumulating beach-cast are increasing problems in many coastal areas. However, beach-cast is also a potentially valuable marine bioresource, e.g. as a biofertiliser in coastal agriculture. One limiting factor in use of beach-cast as a fertiliser is uncertainty regarding the cadmium (Cd) concentration depending on beach-cast composition and location. In this study, chemical analyses were performed on beach cast from Burgsviken Bay off Gotland, in the Baltic Sea. The results revealed large variations in cadmium concentration depending on sampling location and beach-cast composition, with levels ranging between 0.13 and 2.2 mg Cd/kg dry matter (DM). Of 15 beach-cast samples analysed, one had a cadmium content above the Swedish statutory limit for sewage sludge biofertiliser (2 mg Cd/kg DM) and four had values above the limit suggested by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency for 2030 (0.8 mg/kg DM). Species-specific analysis revealed that eelgrass (Zostera marina) contained significantly higher cadmium concentrations than filamentous red algae species (Ceramium and Polysiphonia spp.). Avoiding eelgrass-rich beach-cast by seasonal timing of harvesting and monitoring differences in cadmium concentrations between harvesting sites could thus facilitate use of beach-cast as biofertiliser.

  • 5.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    A Comparative Study of Three Different Methods to Measure Ecological Sensitivity, presented at the Seminar Integrated Costal Zone Management for Sustainable Development, March 1-2, 2007: Report to Tacis CBC - Decision Making Tools for Implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) in Primorsk Area2007Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    A Summary of Sensitivity and Habitat Mapping Initiatives. Report to Tacis CBC: Decision Making Tools for Implementation of Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM)2007Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Chemical Analysis of Water and Sediments - Coastman - Estonia, Fauna and Flora2005In: Report to the Department of Environmental Engineering, Tallinn, Technical University, Estonia: European Comission in Estonia , 2005Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Förödelsen i miljökatastrofens spår2005In: Forskning & Framsteg, ISSN 0015-7937, no 4, p. 58-62Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Havets Okända resurs: WWF EKO2007Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Naturens fantastiska ljusfenomen2005In: WWF-eko : tidskrift för WWF vänner, ISSN 0284-5423, no 2Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Removal of Surface Blooms of the Cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena: A Pilot Project Conducted in the Baltic Sea2009In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 79-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Blooms of Cyanobacteria are a major concern during the summer period in the Baltic Sea Proper. The nitrogen-fixing Nodularia spumigena forms massive toxic blooms in the surface layers, with a concentration of biomass in the uppermost 1-m water layer. This pilot study describes the construction and test of a Nodularia collecting device during the summer of 2006. Oil booms were modified so that their dragging skirt was replaced with a water-permeable forming fabric used in the pulp and paper industry. The results showed that the modified oil booms worked and operated in an effective way when towed in the sea. Calculations showed that the collecting device used in this study has a theoretical capacity of cleaning 0.055 km(2) (5.5 ha) of sea surface hr(-1), compared with the 6600 km(2) of the Baltic Sea that were covered by Nodularia blooms during the summer of 2005. Future possibilities for Nodularia harvesting are discussed.

  • 12.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainablie Development in Higher Education: a Swedish perspective, to the Northeast Campus Sustainability Consortium (NECSC) 20062006Report (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    The Removal of Surface Blooms of the Cyanobacteria Nodularia spumigena2007In: :  , 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Karlsson, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production2009In: ECOSYSTEMS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT VII / [ed] Brebbia CA; Tiezzi E, 2009, Vol. 122, p. 153-161Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is a major threat to the Baltic Sea, causing algae blooms and hypoxic bottoms. Ecological engineering methods aiming at help mitigating the nutrient imbalance problems have already been initiated or are being planned in the coastal zones of the Baltic Sea. This includes harvesting of reed, macro algae and blue mussels as nutrient and energy natural resources. The potential and feasibility of such methods to form the basis for sustainable use of natural resources is governed by the ecological, technical, economic and social aspects associated with the whole chain of processes from biomass to end products, e.g. biogas, fertilizers, and wastes. As a first step in a sustainability assessment, we show that biogas production from algae and reed is associated with a net energy benefit. Blue mussels do not result in a net energy benefit if used for biogas production, but represent the most efficient way of removing nutrients. Based on these preliminary results, we suggest that biogas production from reed and macro algae is worthy of further investigation, whereas for blue mussels, an alternative product must be found.

  • 15.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Franzén, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    A Practical Approach to Integrating Research and Education: A Course Experiment from KTH, Sweden2016In: New Developments in Engineering Education for Sustainable Development / [ed] Walter Leal Filho, Susan Nesbit, Cham: Springer , 2016, p. 69-79Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we evaluate a project-based learning course called Applied Ecology, within the master program Sustainable Technology at the Division of Industrial Ecology, at KTH—Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, Sweden. The case study in the course is focused on the effects of a relatively large Bay, “Burgsviken”, situated on the island Gotland in the middle of the Baltic Sea, that has changed due to the eutrophication in the area. The eutrophication of the Bay has initiated bottom up processes of discussion and engagement among the stakeholders in the area, for the enhancement of the water quality and biological services of the bay, that would in turn improve fishing, swimming, biological diversity and tourism. There are several stakeholders involved in the project: a local non-profit organisation, farmers, entrepreneurs, authorities, permanent and seasonal inhabitants, researchers and others. The course is evaluated according to the methodology of Brundiers and Wiek (2013). Student evaluations have been conducted and analysed in relation to four phases: (1) Orienting phase, formulation of research question. (2) Framing phase, methodology and study planning. (3) Research phase, field study and other examinations. (4) Implementation phase, communication of the results with different stakeholders. The Applied Ecology course shares many of the positive features of other PPBL courses in the sustainability field—namely that it focuses on a real sustainability problem and that the student-centred learning approach and interactions between students and stakeholders make the student partnership in the project feel real, thus providing a practical insight of complex societal challenges. There are potential ways of improving all four phases of the course that were studied, but especially in the research phase and the implementation phase more efforts are needed. Feedback and reflections in the research phase could be improved by a clearer communication and to some extent changed pedagogical process through the course. All phases will be improved by increased communication before, during and after fieldwork between student, teachers and stakeholders.

  • 16.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Muller, M.
    The Trelleborg Concept2008In: Baltic Cities Environmental bulletin, ISSN 1455-0903, Vol. 2, no 08, p. 13-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Peipke, E
    Wessman, M
    The Removal of Surface Blooms of Nodularia Spumigena: A Pilot Project Conducted in the Baltic Sea. Report to Richerts Fond2007Report (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Sidenmark, J.
    Thomsen, Ann
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Survey of waste water disposal practices at Antarctic research stations2009In: Polar Research, ISSN 0800-0395, E-ISSN 1751-8369, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 298-306Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To inform the future practices to be employed for handling waste water and grey water at the Swedish Antarctic station, Wasa, in Dronning Maud Land, the Swedish Polar Research Secretariat took the initiative to survey the practices of the 28 nations with stations in Antarctica. A questionnaire was sent out to all members of the Antarctic Environment Officers Network during the autumn of 2005. Questions were asked about the handling of waste water and grey water, the type of sewage treatment, and installation and operational costs. The response to the questionnaire was very good (79%), and the results showed that 37% of the permanent stations and 69% of the summer stations lack any form of treatment facility. When waste water and grey water containing microorganisms are released, these microorganisms can remain viable in low-temperature Antarctic conditions for prolonged periods. Microorganisms may also have the potential to infect and cause disease, or become part of the gut flora of local bird and mammal populations, and fish and marine invertebrates. The results from 71 stations show that much can still be done by the 28 nations operating the 82 research stations in Antarctica. The technology exists for effective waste water treatment in the challenging Antarctic conditions. The use of efficient technology at all permanent Antarctic research stations would greatly reduce the human impact on the pristine Antarctic environment. In order to protect the Antarctic environment from infectious agents introduced by humans, consideration should also be given to preventing the release of untreated waste water and grey water from the smaller summer stations.

  • 19.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Svanström, Magdalena
    Chalmers kemi- och bioteknik.
    Hållbar utveckling - en introduktion för ingenjörer och andra problemlösare2011 (ed. 01)Book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hasselström, Linus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Anthesis Enveco AB, Barnhusgatan 4, bv, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Visch, W.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nylund, G. M.
    Pavia, H.
    The impact of seaweed cultivation on ecosystem services - a case study from the west coast of Sweden2018In: Marine Pollution Bulletin, ISSN 0025-326X, E-ISSN 1879-3363, Vol. 133, p. 53-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweed cultivation attracts growing interest and sustainability assessments from various perspectives are needed. The paper presents a holistic qualitative assessment of ecosystem services affected by seaweed cultivation on the Swedish west coast. Results suggest that supporting, regulating and provisioning services are mainly positively or non-affected while some of the cultural services are likely negatively affected. The analysis opens for a discussion on the framing of seaweed cultivation – is it a way of supplying ecosystem services and/or a way of generating valuable biomass? Exploring these framings further in local contexts may be valuable for identifying trade-offs and designing appropriate policies and development strategies. Many of the found impacts are likely generalizable in their character across sites and scales of cultivation, but for some services, including most of the supporting services, the character of impacts is likely to be site-specific and not generalizable.

  • 21. Iital, Arvo
    et al.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Loigu, Enn
    Kloga, Marija
    Impact of changes in nutrient inputs to the water quality of the shallow Haapsalu Bay, the Baltic Sea2010In: Journal of Environmental Monitoring, ISSN 1464-0325, E-ISSN 1464-0333, Vol. 12, no 8, p. 1531-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the impact of socio-economic and lifestyle changes on nutrient loads and water quality in Haapsalu Bay, the Baltic Sea between 1995-1996 and 2003-2004. Monthly monitoring data of water quality in four rivers discharging to the bay and seawater at five sea stations were used. External input of TN to the bay remained almost unchanged during the study period despite of the somewhat higher riverine load that was explained by intensified agriculture. The TP input decreased by approximately 45% due to the decrease in river and point source loads. Point sources contribute about one-third of the P load to the bay. An overall decreasing gradient from the rivers to the mouth of the bay was observed both for TP and TN concentrations indicating probable removal of these elements from the water column along the east-west transect. In order to keep the TN/TP ratio within the range that suppresses eutrophication in the bay, further efforts must be implemented to reduce point source phosphorus load.

  • 22.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ganguly, Srirupa
    University of Illinois.
    Ng, T.Y.S
    University of Illinois.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Preliminary assessment of simultaneous mixotrophic production of Tetraselmis tetrathele and treatment of saline wastewater from aquacultureManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest in industrial-scale cultivation of microalgae biomass has increased in recent years, due to its potential in phytochemicals, wastewater treatment, and aquaculture feed. Previous studies have focused on freshwater systems and phototrophic microalgae growth. In this study, preliminary observations were performed on mixotrophic growth of Tetraselmis tetrathele in crude unaltered saline wastewater and its nutrient removal and aquaculture feed potential. The wastewater was obtained directly from a Pacific white shrimp farm. The results showed successful phototrophic and mixotrophic growth of Tetraselmis tetrathele in saline wastewater, with maximum specific growth rate of approximately 0.2 day-1. Some nutrient removal was achieved (phosphate), and use of biomass as feed for shrimp aquaculture are further discussed.

  • 23.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Risén, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Harvesting of Nodularia spumigena in the Baltic Sea: Assessment of Potentials and Added Benefits2014In: Journal of Coastal Research, ISSN 0749-0208, E-ISSN 1551-5036, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 825-831Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interest to harvest wild cyanobacteria exists due to the environmental and socioeconomic risks during cyanobacteria blooms coupled with demands for nonterrestrial-based alternatives for biofuel sources. This research, therefore, sought to estimate the wild cyanobacteria harvesting potential using Nodularia spumigena, and using the Baltic Sea as the case study. Data from literature provided during years 2003-2009 were used to perform estimations. Additional benefits of harvesting were also assessed by estimating the nutrient removal and biogas production potentials from the harvested biomass. Results indicate that one boom unit has the potential to harvest approximately 3 to 700 kg dry weight of N. spumigena per hour depending on the algae concentration of the bloom. Results also suggest that nutrient removal and biogas production potentials provide substantial additional incentives to the harvesting operation during years of extensive and highly concentrated blooms. However, during nonextensive or nonconcentrated blooms such potentials are low.

  • 24.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Song, X
    Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Cheng, Jun
    State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou, PR China.
    Cen, Kefa
    State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, 310027 Hangzhou, PR China.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Energy Analysis of the Nannochloropsis sp. Production as an Alternative Protein Source using the Holistic ep-EROIManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy systems analysis and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of open pond microalgae cultivation systems is attracting considerable interest in the past decade due to their potentials for the production of biofuels and phytochemicals. However, there has been little discussion on energy systems analysis of microalgae produced from power plant flue gas and its use as an alternative protein source. This study aims to analyze edible protein energy return on investment (ep-EROI) and the overall GHG emissions for a medium-to-large scale Nannochloropsis oceanica cultivation system using power plant flue gas in northern China. Besides, additional benefits of the microalgae cultivation system were assessed on the overall nutrient recovery potential of the harvested biomass. Results of the study indicated that cumulative energy demand and GHG emissions for production of Nannochloropsis oceanica products were intermediate to other conventional protein sources in the literature, such as fish. Results of the EROI-based analysis showed that the Nannochloropsis oceanica cultivation system achieved a moderate ep-EROI of 0.11.

  • 25.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Thomas, Jean Baptiste E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Risén, Emma
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Currently at Sweco Environment AB, Sweden.
    Ribeiro, Mauricio S.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Nylund, G. M.
    Jansson, A.
    Welander, U.
    Pavia, H.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Energy performance and greenhouse gas emissions of kelp cultivation for biogas and fertilizer recovery in Sweden2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 573, p. 347-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cultivation of seaweed as a feedstock for third generation biofuels is gathering interest in Europe, however, many questions remain unanswered in practise, notably regarding scales of operation, energy returns on investment (EROI) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, all of which are crucial to determine commercial viability. This study performed an energy and GHG emissions analysis, using EROI and GHG savings potential respectively, as indicators of commercial viability for two systems: the Swedish Seafarm project's seaweed cultivation (0.5 ha), biogas and fertilizer biorefinery, and an estimation of the same system scaled up and adjusted to a cultivation of 10 ha. Based on a conservative estimate of biogas yield, neither the 0.5 ha case nor the up-scaled 10 ha estimates met the (commercial viability) target EROI of 3, nor the European Union Renewable Energy Directive GHG savings target of 60% for biofuels, however the potential for commercial viability was substantially improved by scaling up operations: GHG emissions and energy demand, per unit of biogas, was almost halved by scaling operations up by a factor of twenty, thereby approaching the EROI and GHG savings targets set, under beneficial biogas production conditions. Further analysis identified processes whose optimisations would have a large impact on energy use and emissions (such as anaerobic digestion) as well as others embodying potential for further economies of scale (such as harvesting), both of which would be of interest for future developments of kelp to biogas and fertilizer biorefineries.

  • 26. Risén, E.
    et al.
    Nordström, J.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Non-market values of algae beach-cast management – Study site Trelleborg, Sweden2017In: Ocean and Coastal Management, ISSN 0964-5691, E-ISSN 1873-524X, Vol. 140, p. 59-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the most serious global threats to coastal areas. One effect of eutrophication is seasonal macroalgal blooms. As a consequence, large amounts of beach-cast algae are today reported from coastal areas worldwide. In this study, we analyze nonmarket benefits by capturing local residents’ Willingness To Pay (WTP) for an environmental program to regularly remove and utilize beach-cast algae to produce bioenergy and biofertilizer. Results indicate a considerable WTP among local residents in the Baltic Sea study site. This WTP estimate together with a potential increase in non-resident beach tourism amounts to potentially substantial welfare benefits from the environmental program. These benefits could encourage similar environmental programs in the future.

  • 27.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable production of biogas from maritime biomass2010Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Gregeby, Erik
    Tatarchenko, Olena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Blidberg, Eva
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Welander, Ulrika
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Assessment of biomethane production from maritime common reed2013In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 53, p. 186-194Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several ongoing projects are harvesting maritime biomass from the Baltic Sea for eutrophication mitigation and utilisation of the recovered biomass. Some of this biomass comprises common reed (Phragmites australis), one of the most widespread vascular plants on Earth. Reed utilisation from eutrophied coastal areas needs to be evaluated. Therefore, a system analysis was performed of reed harvesting for biofuel and biofertiliser production. The specific objectives of the analysis were to: investigate the methane yield associated with anaerobic co-digestion of reed; make a primary energy assessment of the system; quantify Greenhouse Gas (GHG) savings when a fossil reference system is replaced; and estimate the nutrient recycling potential of the system. The results from energy and GHG calculations are highly dependent on conditions such as system boundaries, system design, allocation methods and selected indicators. Therefore a pilot project taking place in Kalmar County, Sweden, was used as a case study system. Laboratory experiments using continuously stirred tank reactor digesters indicated an increased methane yield of about 220 m(3) CH4/t volatile solids from co-digestion of reed. The energy balance for the case study system was positive, with energy requirements amounting to about 40% of the energy content in the biomethane produced and with the non-renewable energy input comprising about 50% of the total energy requirements of the system. The net energy value proved to be equivalent to about 40 L of petrol/t reed wet weight. The potential to save GHG emissions compared with a fossil reference system was considerable (about 80%). Furthermore an estimated 60% of the nitrogen and almost all the phosphorus in the biomass could be re-circulated to arable land as biofertiliser. Considering the combined benefits from all factors investigated in this study, harvesting of common reed from coastal zones has the potential to be beneficial, assuming an appropriate system design, and is worthy of further investigations regarding other sustainability aspects.

  • 29.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nordström, Jonas
    Lund University.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    Valuing beach cast utilization and addressing preference uncertaintyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication and global warming have created major problems with decaying macroalgae on Baltic Sea beaches. A considerable amount of this biomass is retrieved, only to be returned to the sea when the tourist season ends. It is therefore essential to implement systems whereby the retrieved biomass is utilised. One potential system is anaerobic digestion for biogas and biofertiliser recovery, but knowledge about non-market benefits is lacking. This study estimated the willingness-to-pay (WTP) for algae retrieval and utilisation in a case study area and examined methods for incorporating preference uncertainty information into WTP estimates. This was done by gathering data using two different methods and comparing the results. In addition, results obtained from an open-ended interval (OEI) format were compared with those from a payment card. A substantial mean WTP was found. The two elicitation formats produced similar mean WTP estimates. However, the OEI format produced weaker results, with a significantly higher level of stated preference uncertainty and an elevated zero response rate. Comparisons of preference uncertainty information gathered with two different methods yielded unexpected results and to some extent contradicted findings on interval size in the OEI format as a good measure of preference uncertainty.

  • 30.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Pechsiri, Joseph Santhi
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Malmström, Maria
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Natural Resource Potential of Macroalgae Harvesting in the Baltic Sea-Case Study Trelleborg, Sweden2013In: Global Challenges in Integrated Coastal Zone Management, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, p. 69-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in harvesting biomass from the Baltic Sea has increased in recent years. However, there is a lack of available data on macroalgae biomass and of cost-effective methods for site-specific quantification of macroalgae. In this study, macroalgae biomass has been quantified in Trelleborg and thus the nutrient reduction that could be achieved by harvesting on a regional scale. The biomass was estimated on the basis of existing inventories of macroalgae, photic zone distribution and bottom substrata. An independent model for estimating the potential of macroalgae growth was applied where factors affecting the growth of macroalgae, for example nutrients, light and temperature, were considered. The estimated summer stock of macroalgae biomass along the 58 km coastal stretch in Trelleborg amounts to 19 000 tonnes dry weight (dwt) red filamentous algae. If 10-30% of this summer stock were to be harvested, a nutrient reduction of 50-150 t of nitrogen could be achieved. The model for estimating biomass proved promising and worthy of further investigation.

  • 31.
    Risén, Emma
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Tatarchenko, Olena
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Malmström, Maria E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Harvesting of drifting filamentous macroalgae in the Baltic Sea: An energy assessment2014In: Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, ISSN 1941-7012, E-ISSN 1941-7012, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 013116-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication combined with climate change has caused ephemeral filamentous macroalgae to increase and drifts of seaweed cover large areas of some Baltic Sea sites during summer. In ongoing projects, these mass occurrences of drifting filamentous macroalgae are being harvested to mitigate eutrophication, with preliminary results indicating considerable nutrient reduction potential. In the present study, an energy assessment was made of biogas production from the retrieved biomass for a Baltic Sea pilot case. Use of different indicators revealed a positive energy balance. The energy requirements corresponded to about 30%-40% of the energy content in the end products. The net energy gain was 530-800 MJ primary energy per ton wet weight of algae for small-scale and large-scale scenarios, where 6 000 and 13 000 tonnes dwt were harvested, respectively. However, the exergy efficiency differed from the energy efficiency, emphasising the importance of taking energy quality into consideration when evaluating energy systems. An uncertainty analysis indicated parametric uncertainty of about 25%-40%, which we consider to be acceptable given the generally high sensitivity of the indicators to changes in input data, allocation method, and system design. Overall, our evaluation indicated that biogas production may be a viable handling strategy for retrieved biomass, while harvesting other types of macroalgae than red filamentous species considered here may render a better energy balance due to higher methane yields.

  • 32. Sjöåsen, T.
    et al.
    Bisther, M.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Evaluation of an Otter (Lutra lutra)2009Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Sterner, Martin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology.
    Ribeiro, Mauricio Sodre
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Water and Environmental Engineering.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Fibre- and Polymer Technology.
    Cyclic fractionation process for Saccharina latissima using aqueous chelator and ion exchange resin2017In: Journal of Applied Phycology, ISSN 0921-8971, E-ISSN 1573-5176, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 3175-3189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new approach to process Saccharina latissima algal biomass was developed using sodium citrate and a polyvalent cation-specific resin to sequentially extract the alginate into several usable fractions. The fractionation was performed in a cyclic manner, utilizing a stepwise removal of the native polyvalent ions present in the algae to isolate fractions of alginate with different solubility in the presence of these ions. Sodium citrate was used in different concentrations in the extraction solution to remove polyvalent cations to adjust the alginate liberation while AMBERLITE IRC718 resin was added to further remove these ions and regenerate the extraction solution. Alginate was recovered by acid precipitation and analyzed for its uronic acid composition and molecular weight, and the carbohydrate compositions of the insoluble and soluble parts of the algal biomass residue were determined. Finally, the fractionation method was assessed with a life cycle analysis to determine the energy and water efficiency as well as the greenhouse gas emissions and the results were compared to conventional alkaline extraction. The results indicate that the energy and water use as well as the emissions are considerably lower for the cyclic extraction in comparison with the conventional methods.

  • 34.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Nordstrom, Jonas
    Univ Copenhagen, Dept Food & Resource Econ, Rolighedsvej 25, DK-1958 Frederiksberg C, Denmark.;Lund Univ, Agrifood Econ Ctr, Lund, Sweden..
    Risen, Emma
    Sweco Environm AB, Gjorwellsgatan 22, S-11260 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Malmström, Maria
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    The perception of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast2018In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 398-409Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Efforts are on the way on the Swedish West Coast to develop the capacity for cultivation of marine resources, notably of kelps. Given that this is a region of great natural and national heritage, public opposition to marine developments has been identified as a possible risk factor. This survey thus sought to shed light on awareness levels, perceptions of different types of aquaculture and on reactions to a scenario depicting future aquaculture developments on the West Coast. When asked about their general opinions of aquaculture, respondents tended to be favourable though a majority chose neutral responses. On the whole, respondents were favourable to the depicted scenario. Finally, it was found that the high-awareness group tended to be more supportive than the low or medium-awareness groups, hinting at the benefits of increasing awareness to reduce public aversion and to support a sustainable development of aquaculture on the Swedish West Coast.

  • 35.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ramos, Filipe Silva
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Identifying Suitable Sites for Macroalgae Cultivation on the Swedish West Coast2019In: COASTAL MANAGEMENT, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 88-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Special attention has been paid to sustainable macroalgae cultivation in Europe. The question on where suitable cultivation areas lie, without conflicting with current marine socio-economic activities and respecting the environment, remains a great challenge. Considering 13 criteria critical to seaweed farming such as depth, shipping traffic, and distance to ports, this paper aimed to identify suitable and sustainable offshore areas on the West Coast of Sweden for the cultivation of the Sugar Kelp, Saccharina latissima. An integrated approach with the tools geographic information systems (GIS) and multi-criteria analysis (MCA) was used to aggregate the criteria by means of Boolean and weighted linear combination (WLC) techniques. The Boolean method singled out 544 km(2) as suitable, whereas the WLC method indicated 475 km(2) as highly suitable. Both techniques complement each other in finding optimal sites. Furthermore, the integrated models excelled in providing an overview for effective spatial decision-making that fosters sustainable development of macroalgae cultivations within marine and coastal systems.

  • 36. van Oirschot, R.
    et al.
    Thomas, Jean-Baptiste
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Fortuin, K. P. J.
    Brandenburg, W.
    Potting, José
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Explorative environmental life cycle assessment for system design of seaweed cultivation and drying2017In: Algal Research, ISSN 2211-9264, Vol. 27, p. 43-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seaweeds are presently explored as an alternative source to meet the future protein demand from a growing world population with an increasing welfare level. Present seaweed research largely focuses on agri-technical and economic aspects. This paper explores directions for optimizing the cultivation, harvesting, transport and drying of seaweed from an environmental point of view. An environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) and detailed sensitivity analysis was made for two different system designs. One system design is featuring one layer of cultivation strips (four longlines side by side) interspaced with access corridors. The other system design is featuring a doubling of cultivation strips by dual layers in the water column. Impact profiles and sensitivity analysis showed that the most important impacts came from drying the harvested seaweed, and from the production of the chromium steel chains and polypropylene rope in the infrastructure. This indicates that caution should be used when designing cultivation systems featuring such materials and processes. Furthermore, the high-density productivity of the dual layer system decreases absolute environmental impacts and so found to be a little more environmentally friendly from a life cycle perspective.

  • 37.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Gröndahl, Fredrik
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    The Relation of Industrial Ecology versus Natural Ecosystems and the Fundamental Principles of Industrial Ecology in Anthropogenic Systems2005In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology, Stockholm, Sweden: Industrial Ecology, KTH , 2005Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 37 of 37
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