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  • 1.
    Buclet, Nicolas
    et al.
    Université Grenoble Alpes; Institut d’Urbanisme de Grenoble.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Principles for sustainability: the need to shift to a sustainable conventional regime2015In: Environment, Development and Sustainability, ISSN 1387-585X, E-ISSN 1573-2975, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 83-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the present dominant economic system rests upon unquestioned beliefs that are in a deep contradiction with the pursuit of sustainable development. The economics of conventions is used as an analytical framework through which to demonstrate the conflict between the dominant conventions underpinning societal development and the objectives of sustainable development. It suggests that a trajectory towards the objectives of sustainable development should be managed through a reflexion concerning the conventional principles required to be adopted in order to favour the emergence of a new conventional regime. The principles of proximity, the increase in individual and collective capabilities, and participative democracy are presented as possible principles that could be adopted in order to favour the emergence of a new conventional regime. 

  • 2.
    Finnveden, Göran
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Livscykelaspekter  och nanomaterial2013In: Säker utveckling!: Nationell handlingsplan för säker hantering och användning av nanomaterial, Fritzes, 2013, p. 351-382Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Franzese, Pier Paolo
    et al.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Reddy, Sudhakara
    Energy and Urban Systems2016In: Journal of Environmental Accounting and Management, ISSN 2325-6192, E-ISSN 2325-6206, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 99-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy and environmental security are major problems facing our global economy. Fossil fuels, particularly crude oil, are confined to a few regions of the world while the continuity of supply is governed by dynamic political, economic, and ecological factors. Cities and urban systems are largely dependent on local and imported resources in support of both quantitative and qualitative growth. However, modern cities are experiencing shortages of energy, water, clean air, social relations and cohesion, social inclusion, and ultimately lack of participatory governance of city complexity. At present about 50% of the world population (i.e., about 3.5 billion people) live in cities. The resource basis seems to be insufficient and unfairly distributed to support an acceptable standard of living for a large fraction of urban and rural population. In addition, the concentration of resources required to support cities places a huge load on surrounding environment. For these reasons, cities must face the challenge of reorganizing their infrastructures and lifestyles to cope with the decreasing availability of resources. The priority in policy making is to identify suitable policies to reorganize urban life in the presence of a shrinking resource basis. Such reorganization will have to make cities less energy and material demanding, although still providing high quality standards of life. This cannot occur without investments, research, and important and shared choices about lifestyles.

  • 4. Kangas, H. -L
    et al.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Finland.
    Kivimaa, P.
    Technical skills, disinterest and non-functional regulation: Barriers to building energy efficiency in Finland viewed by energy service companies2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 114, p. 63-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy inefficiency in the building stock is a substantial contributor to climate change. Integrated energy service companies (IESCs) have a potentially important role in improving energy efficiency. This paper presents a qualitative analysis of the energy efficiency barriers in the Finnish building sector based on data from interviews with twelve IESCs. Taking a novel supply side perspective, we place IESCs at the centre of the emerging energy services business ecosystem to identify the barriers and hindering factors (real world illustrations of barriers). From this perspective, we also examine cause-effect relationships between the hindering factors and the actors. Hindering factors, reported by IESCs, were categorised under a revised barrier taxonomy consisting of economic market failures and economic market, behavioural, organisational and institutional barriers. The most salient hindering factors—lack of technical skills, disinterest in energy efficiency improvements and non-functional regulation—were analysed with respect to ecosystem actors causing and affected by these factors. Public actors have a key role in overcoming these barriers, for instance, by creating new possibilities for entrants to take part in decision-making, increasing the functionality and practicality of policies and by providing up-to date energy efficiency information.

  • 5.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies (moved 20130630).
    Montrucchio, Valeria
    Bistagnino, Luigi
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Causal loop diagrams to identify potential sources of environmental impacts outside the scope of LCA studies: case studies on washing machines and road vehiclesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Montrucchio, Valeria
    Polytechnic of Turin.
    Bistagnino, Luigi
    Polytechnic of Turin.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Group Model-Building to identify potential sources of environmental impacts outside the scope of LCA studies2014In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 72, p. 96-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Specific methodologies that consider a more comprehensive/diverse set of parameters must be explored by the LCA community. This study utilises the Group Model-Building (GMB) method to identify, and Causal Loop Diagram (CLD) technique to make explicit, variables which are not typically considered in LCA studies, but may have significant influence upon environmental impacts through cause-effect links and feedback loops in product systems. A literature review on LCAs concerning household washing machines and conventional passenger cars product systems is performed to investigate what are the commonly used functional unit, life cycle stages and system boundaries. Two parallel GMB sessions were organised to elicit relevant variables and relations in the product systems and build in a first version of CLDs. Individual interviews with the participants were undertaken to refine and validate the system models. Final versions of the system models were built. GMB and CLD can serve as a basis for (i) delimitating appropriated system boundaries for LCA and (ii) identifying variables/areas to be included in sensitivity and scenario analysis. Sensitivity and scenario analysis examine the influence that those variables/areas have on the environmental impacts of the product and describe both different contexts and profiles of users. GMB and CLD have the potential to bridge the divide between quantitative and qualitative variables, for more robust understanding of the causes and mechanisms of environmental impacts and improving conclusions and recommendations in LCA.

  • 7.
    Laurenti, Rafael
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Poulikidou, Sofia
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Environmental Strategies.
    Montrucchio, Valeria
    Polytechnic of Turin, Architectural and Industrial Design Department.
    Frostell, Björn
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Bistagnino, Luigi
    Polytechnic of Turin, Architectural and Industrial Design Department.
    Wennersten, Ronald
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Using causal maps to identify potential sources of environmental impact outside the scope of LCA studies: preliminary findings from case studies on washing machines and road vehicles2012In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Sustainable Development Research Conference, University of Hull, Hull, UK, 24 – 26 June 2012, Hull, UK, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Much of the environmental impacts of which a product will potentially have during its life cycle  are  determined  during  the  design  phase  by  choices  such  as  type  of  materials  and manufacturing  processes.  The  Life  Cycle  Assessment  (LCA)  method  is  commonly  used  to assess  the  potential  environmental  impacts  and  identify  hot-spots  for  improvements  of  a product system. However, other important variables exist outside the product system that can also  influence  environmental  impacts.  The  aim  of  this  study  is  to  utilise  causal  maps  to identify variables which may not typically be identified and considered in LCA studies but may have significant influence upon environmental impacts through cause-effect chains. To illustrate the utility of causal maps, household washing machines and conventional passenger cars are chosen as case studies. Preliminary findings indicate that causal mapping can be used to  identify  which  are  the  relevant  variables  and  describe  how  they  potentially  interact  in  a system perspective. This knowledge might allow for more robust decision support.

  • 8.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    How and why actors use LCA in the context of waste policy? Justifying the use of LCA through plural systems of legitimacy2013In: Perspectives on managing life cycles – proceedings of the 6th international conference on life cycle management, 2013, p. 68-71Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Life Cycle Thinking and Waste Policy: Between Science and Society2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the application of life cycle thinking (LCT) and life cycle assessment (LCA) in the field of waste management from perspectives based in the social sciences. LCT is explored through the theoretical construct of regimes, drawing theoretical resources from a combination of the ‘pragmatic turn’, the economics of conventions and transition theory.This work is based on eight papers treating theoretical arguments, qualitative and quantitative analysis, case studies and semi-structured interview data. LCT is placed in the context of contemporary societies. LCA is seen as an instrument of quantification and evaluation used by actors which have both similar and disparate objectives, and who offer justifications for its use through arguments embedded in conflicting pluralities of worth. Furthermore, this work analyses LCA as a tool for the qualification of the waste hierarchy; a waste management principle articulating a convention based on closed material cycles. This study argues that the technological trajectory of waste management regimes has been significantly influenced, inter alia, by actors’ institutional articulation of the waste hierarchy at national and territorial levels. It discusses the legitimacy of LCA, and the quantitative application of LCT, as an intermediary object used to qualify the waste hierarchy. Furthermore, LCT is placed in a prospective context which may be used to assist in the transition toward sustainable waste management.

  • 10.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    The legitimacy of life cycle assessment in the waste management sector2015In: The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, ISSN 0948-3349, E-ISSN 1614-7502Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Life cycle assessment (LCA) is commonly presented as a tool for rational decision-making. It has been increasingly used to support decision-making in situations where multiple actors possess diverse, and sometimes conflicting, perspectives, values and motives. Yet, little effort has been placed on understanding LCA in a social framework of action. This paper aims to analyse the legitimacy of LCA in public sector decision-making situations, the criticisms presented against LCA, and suggest potential ways to alleviate these criticisms.

    Methods: This study consists of a case study of the application of LCA in the waste management sector in England and France. To gain an understanding of the justification and criticism of LCA, semi-structured interviews were undertaken with national and local level waste management actors. The justifications and criticism of the application of LCA was analysed through an analytical framework, the economies of worth.This suggests that in situations of disagreement, actors’ justifications are required to show their attachment to plural forms of common good. This work analyses the orders of worth in which justifications and criticisms of the application of LCA were based.

    Results and discussion: LCA is applied primarily as a test of environmental efficiency, illustrating a collaboration between the industrial and green orders of worth. Actors apply LCA with the aspiration of replicating the scientific method and producing robust evidence to support the most efficient waste treatment option. In this case, efficiency is coupled with the green order of worth, where gains in efficiency mean lower environmental impacts. Internal criticisms of LCA, based in the industrial order of worth, highlights the limitations of LCA to act as a test of environmental efficiency. Furthermore, criticism based in the civic order of worth highlights the friction which arises in decision-making situations when LCA has been seen to subjugate the civic nature of waste management decisions.

    Conclusions: One potential way forward for LCA may be to introduce aspects relevant in the civic order of worth which aims at achieving a compromise between the industrial and civic orders of worth. Envisioning LCA as a process-oriented tool, as opposed to an outcome-oriented tool, can allow for aspects on public involvement in the LCA process, thereby increasing its civic legitimacy.

  • 11.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Aoustin, E.
    Buclet, N.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Plastic waste management and environmental sustainability: results from a life cycle perspective2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Aoustin, E.
    Buclet, N.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    The Waste Hierarchy in Europe: Evolution, Articulation and Qualification.2010In: In Society and Material 4, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Aoustin, Emmanuelle
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Plastic waste management in the context of a European recycling society: Comparing results and uncertainties in a life cycle perspective2010In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 246-259Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have been undertaken within the last 15 years comparing end-of-life treatment options for post-consumer plastic waste, including techniques such as: mechanical recycling, feedstock recycling, incineration with energy recovery and landfilling. These have attempted to support decisions in the formulation of waste management strategies and policies. In light of the introduction of life cycle thinking into European waste policies, specifically in relation to the waste hierarchy, a literature review of publically available LCA studies evaluating alternative end-of-life treatment options for plastic waste has been conducted. This has been done in order to: establish if a consensus exists as to the environmentally preferable treatment option for plastic waste; identify the methodological considerations and assumptions that have led to these conclusions; and determine the legitimacy of applying the waste hierarchy to the plastic waste stream. The majority of the LCA studies concluded that, when single polymer plastic waste fractions with little organic contamination are recycled and replace virgin plastic at a ratio of close to 1:1, recycling is generally the environmentally preferred treatment option when compared to municipal solid waste incineration. It has been found that assumptions relating to the virgin material substitution ratio and level of organic contamination can have a significant influence upon the results of these studies. Although a limited number of studies addressed feedstock recycling, feedstock recycling and the use of plastic waste as a solid recovered fuel in cement kilns were preferred to municipal solid waste incineration. Landfilling of plastic waste compared to municipal solid waste incineration proved to be the least preferred option for all impact categories except for global warming potential. Due to the uncertainty surrounding some assumptions in the studies, it cannot be said with confidence that the waste hierarchy should be applied to plastic waste management as a general rule.

  • 14.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    A conceptual framework for life cycle thinking in transitions toward sustainable waste management2011In: Trends and Future of Sustainable Development: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Jenni Elo, Hanna Lakkala & Anna Linna, Turku, Finland: Uniprint , 2011, p. 33-33Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As society continues its pursuit of sustainable development the importance of resourceefficiency and waste management has become increasingly recognised. As a consequence, a number ofEuropean policies implement the concept of life cycle thinking in order to reduce the negativeenvironmental impact of waste management systems. The benefit of life cycle thinking is that itsholistic perspective allows one to account for the environmental impacts or benefits of not only thewaste system but connected systems - such as energy and material production. However, the currentuse of life cycle thinking in long-term waste management strategy has been called into questionregarding its ability to facilitate a transition toward sustainable waste management.This paper presents a conceptual framework for the use of life cycle thinking as an element insustainability transitions. It draws on transition theory and the concept of conventional regimes(economics of conventions) in order to provide a new perspective on the relationship between life cyclethinking and sustainable waste management.

  • 15.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Institut d’Urbanisme de Grenoble.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Conventional regimes: Part I: Sustainability transitions from a conventional perspectiveManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Innovation studies often use regimes as a theoretical construct to underst and technological evolution.Theories such as the multi-level perspective of system innovation depart from foundations found in science and technology studies, evolutionary economics, structuration theory and neo-institutional theory. Several constructive criticisms, however, have been levelled against the multi-level perspective suggesting it may be overly functionalistic and risk neglecting the role of agency. This paper revisits such criticisms in addition to the conceptualisation of rules and agency in the multi-level perspective. Subsequently, this paper draws on an emerging school of economic thought, suggesting a conceptual framework of regimes based in the economicsof conventions. This paper outlines the theoretical basis to concept of conventional regimes, highlighting a case of innovation where the emergence of principles which depart from those of the conventional regime has led to the development of niche spaces for innovation, departing from the conventional regime. This paper goes onto compare some of the commonalities and difference between this approach to studying innovation and the multi-level perspective.

  • 16.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Institut d’Urbanisme de Grenoble.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Conventional regimes: Part II: A case study of German plastic waste management from a conventional perspectiveManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the evolution of German plastic waste management technologies. Using insights from the economics of conventions, we investigate why the course of events led action to transpire in a specific way, when in the same conditions different actions may have occurred. The development of feedstock recycling niche was heavily affected by the political objectives of the regime. The establishment of these objectives were in turn influenced by actors’ games played out within the regime, in the context of the prevailing conventional principles and conventional objectives which regulate human action. In addition to market forces, the decline of feedstock recycling can then be related to its role as a strategy which was not in keeping with the strict interpretation of the prevention and valorisation principles, whose articulation formed the core principles ofthe German waste management regime.

  • 17.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    The application of life cycle thinking in the context of European waste policy2012In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 29-30, p. 199-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the impetus of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle thinking (LCT) in waste management policy is increasing, decision makers may face conflicting advice on the potential environmental impacts of competing end-of-life treatment options. This paper discusses the problem posed by the Waste Framework Directive, 2008/98/EC, where LCT is required to justify the departure of waste streams from the waste hierarchy. This paper places LCA of waste management systems in the context of applying 'normal' science to 'post-normal' problems. The current application of La in waste policy is reviewed in order to determine the epistemic basis to such applications. Furthermore, several cases are reviewed where controversy has surrounded the a priori purpose of applying LCT; the justification of a clear-cut solution to environmental problems. We show how the excess of objectivity, the social construction of knowledge and the playing out of actors' games may limit the ability of LCT to offer an authoritative justification for the derogation of waste streams from the waste hierarchy. However, one of the major benefits of LCT lies in its ability to change actors problem perception. Hence, the application of LCT may be better suited to both the identification of areas of environmental impact and the positioning of waste management solutions further up the waste policy agenda.

  • 18.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630). CNRS Troyes University of Technology, France; Veolia Environnement Recherche et Innovation, France.
    Buclet, Nicolas
    University of Technology, Troyes.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology (moved 20130630).
    The influence of the waste hierarchy in shaping European waste management: the case of plastic waste2010In: Regional Development Dialogue, ISSN 0250-6505, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 124-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Waste management in Europe has experienced significant changes since the 1970s. The majority of Member State waste management regimes have shifted from policies based on the control of waste disposal activities, to include goals for waste prevention and recovery. The rapid increase of plastic packaging recycling in Germany had a number of unintended consequences. In the first years of the Packaging Ordinance, the majority of plastic packaging collected was exported to China, Eastern Europe, and other EU Member States due to lack of national capacity. The setting of high recycling targets for plastic packaging waste between 1991 and 1998 and the prohibition of incineration with energy recovery was a key driver of recycling technology innovation in Germany. When adopting new principles to serve as the foundation of belief, they should synchronize with the existing waste management myths of individual regions, as myths may differ from region to region illustrating different cultural ideals.

  • 19.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Buclet, Nicolas
    Institut d’Urbanisme de Grenoble.
    Quandalle-Ranoux, Maëlle
    Keserue, Oliver
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Coordination in European waste management regimes: the role and legitimacy of the waste hierarchyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article considers the legitimacy of the waste hierarchy in the context of European waste management regimes. Pragmatic sociology and the economics of conventions are drawn upon to understand how actors legitimate action. The waste hierarchy is placed in the context of the plural systems of legitimacy actors utilise when justifying action. Empirical data from semi-structured interviews with national and local level actors in England and France are used to identify the plural legitimacies which underpin action in waste management regimes, and which actors utilise to justify their use of the waste hierarchy. This data suggest the waste hierarchy is as a principle of coordination justified as both an expression of the environmental efficiency of waste treatment options, and whose implementation is the result of a legitimate policy making process at the European level. The article concludes with a discussion of the qualification and evolution ofthe waste hierarchy.

  • 20.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Life cycle aspects of nanomaterials2013Report (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Environm Policy Ctr, POB 140, Helsinki 00260, Finland..
    Martin, Michael
    IVL Swedish Environm Res Inst, Org Prod & Proc, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Life cycle assessment calculative practices in the Swedish biofuel sector: Governing biofuel sustainability by standards and numbers2018In: Business Strategy and the Environment, ISSN 0964-4733, E-ISSN 1099-0836, Vol. 27, no 8, p. 1558-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the introduction of the European Union's Renewable Energy Directive (RED), biofuel-producing firms are required to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) based greenhouse gas accounting in order to fulfill part of directive's sustainability criteria. This paper adopts the concepts of "governing by standards" and "governing by numbers" to understand the LCA practices of biofuel-producing firms and assess the critical moments of friction between these alternative modes of governance. We focus our analysis on the use of LCA in the Swedish biofuel industry, undertaking case studies on the use of LCA in four Swedish biofuel-producing firms and semistructured interviews with industry associations and governmental bodies. Results indicated that the RED not only influences what biofuel sustainability entails but also structures the calculative practices used to measure it. At the same time, our results point to friction between achieving regulatory compliance and improving biofuel sustainability.

  • 22.
    Lazarevic, David
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Environmental Policy Centre, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE, Finland.
    Martin, Michael
    LCA and Environmental Management, IVL-Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Life cycle assessments, carbon footprints and carbon visions: Analysing environmental systems analyses of transportation biofuels in Sweden2016In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 137, p. 249-257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the sustainable production and consumption of biofuels, an increasing body of scientific literature has become available in recent years focusing on the environmental impacts of biofuels. Whilst the climate change mitigation is perhaps the primary driver behind the promotion of biofuels, climate change is not the only crucial impact associated with biofuel production and consumption systems. This study aims at analysing the extent of the dominant focus on climate impacts in Swedish research applying environmental systems analysis (ESA) tools to investigate the environmental impacts of biofuels, and why this may exist. A systematic literature review of Swedish research applying ESA tools in the study of transportation biofuels between 2000 and 2015 was conducted; identifying 64 studies. The results indicate that studies using life cycle assessment include a range of impact categories in addition to climate impacts, e.g. acidification and eutrophication. However, when also considering environmental footprints (i.e., carbon and water footprints) and material flow analyses, the dominance of carbon footprints leads to an overly dominant focus on climate impacts at the expense of other impact categories. The consideration of environmental impacts other than those related to climate impacts is discussed in terms of the influence of the dominant science-policy framework in Sweden and study dependent variables, such as data uncertainty and methodological limitations. Whilst biofuel production is inextricably linked to climate policy, the environmental impacts of Swedish biofuel production and consumption should also consider the broader context of the Swedish National Environmental Objectives.

  • 23.
    Liljenström, Carolina
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms).
    Finnveden, Göran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Environmental Strategies Research (fms). KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Centres, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Centres, Centre for Sustainable Communications, CESC.
    Silicon-based nanomaterials in a life-cycle perspective, including a case study on self-cleaning coatings2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Trafikverket or Trafikverket’s contractors are considering the use of several products that in some way have to do with nanotechnology for sealing and impregnating various types of surfaces, for example road safety cameras. It has been noted that the potential health and environmental risks of nanomaterials should be evaluated over their entire life cycle. Further to previous risk assessments made on the nano-products considered by Trafikverket, it is therefore relevant to analyse the product’s impacts from a life cycle perspective.

    The aims of this project are to (i) Provide a state-of-the-art background on the types, production processes, uses and current debates on the classification, and human and eco-toxicity of nano-silica and silane based nanofilms, (ii) To analyse if there are any arguments, from an environmental perspective, for the application of self-cleaning coatings to speed cameras compared to conventional practice, (iii) To qualitatively discuss the potential importance of nanoparticle emissions from self-cleaning coatings in the context of other sources of nanoparticle emissions.

    A life cycle assessment is performed for maintenance of road safety cameras in Sweden in a business as usual (BAU) scenario and in a scenario where the cameras have been coated with a self-cleaning silane based nanofilm (Nano ProHard). The functional unit is the maintenance of road safety cameras in Sweden to allow for an acceptable speed camera picture quality over one year. The life cycle impact assessment methods ReCiPe Midpoint (Hierarchist) and Cumulative Energy Demand have been used. All life cycle phases from extraction of raw materials to end-of-life have been included. Inventory data is gathered from Ecoinvent 2.2. The detergent used in the business as usual scenario is approximated with the Ecoinvent process "Soap, at plant/RER S" and the alkoxysilanes in NanoProHard with "Tetrachlorosilane, at plant/GLO S".

    Results show that the biggest impacts in the BAU-scenario are related to operation of vehicles for inspection of the road safety cameras in the maintenance phase, and to the production of soap. The biggest impacts in the Nano-scenario are related to operation of vehicles in the maintenance phase, and to production of soap, Nano ProHard Clean and Nano ProHard, mainly due to the ethanol in the product. Comparing the two scenarios (excluding operation of vehicles in the maintenance phase) it was seen that BAU had a bigger contribution than Nano in all impact categories except for fossil depletion, due to use of ethanol in the Nano-scenario. However, a sensitivity analysis revealed that this may not always be the case. It should also be noted that the toxicity in the use phase has not been assessed.

    In cases where very little detergent is used for cleaning, for example in those cases where only water is used in the BAU-scenario, it may not be beneficial to use a nanofilm. However, in case the road safety cameras are usually washed very often, and/or with big amounts of detergent, use of nanofilm could have lower GHG-emissions than maintenance in BAU-scenario. However, it can again be emphasised that the toxicity of the products in the use phase has not been assessed, and that this is an aspect that must also be considered when concluding on which maintenance regime to choose. It must also be noted that soap is not the commonly used detergent in maintenance, and that results could vary significantly depending on detergent used.

    It can be concluded that there are no clear environmental benefits if Trafikverket were to apply self-cleaning coatings to their road safety cameras, compared to conventional practice. The main source of impacts from maintenance of the road safety cameras is vehicle operation and this cannot be reduced by application of a nanofilm due to the current requirement of inspecting the cameras once per week. Considering the lack of knowledge on the product, and the possible toxicity of its components, it is not recommended that the product is used without further investigations into the type of chemicals used.

  • 24. Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    A Review of North American Biofuel Production, Policies and Research2015Report (Refereed)
  • 25. Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Larsson, Mathias
    Aid, Graham
    A review of biofuel environmental systems analysis research in Sweden2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26. Martin, Michael
    et al.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Larsson, Mathias
    Aid, Graham
    Carbon Vision? A Review of Environmental Systems Analyses Research in Sweden2015Report (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Finnish Environm Inst SYKE, Environm Policy Ctr, PL 140, Helsinki 00251, Finland.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Kordas, Olga (Contributor)
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Household responsiveness to residential demand response strategies - Results and policy implications from a Swedish field study2018In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To realize the benefits of smart grids, residential demand response (DR) aims to increase demand flexibility by influence household electricity consumption. Although price-based DR programs have shown potential, there is a need to further investigate the effectiveness of DR in energy strategy and policy development. The evaluation of DR has focused on the impact on overall power demand, assuming that consumers are economically rational decision-maker. However, recent findings suggest that consumer responses have been insufficient and calls have been made to identify novel evaluation approaches that better reflect the human dimension of energy consumption. Continuing this line of enquiry, this paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of DR and explore the potential of environmental incentives for increased consumer engagement. We propose an interdisciplinary evaluation framework to understand variations in household responsiveness to DR strategies, which is tested in a Swedish DR field trial covering 136 households during 2017. Results suggest that the effectiveness of DR varies widely across household type; ranging from substantial reductions in overall consumption and during peak periods, to increases in consumption during peak periods. Furthermore, a clear favor of price incentives, compared to environmental incentives, as the most efficient strategy to increase demand flexibility was observed.

  • 28.
    Nilsson, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Resources, Energy and Infrastructure.
    Wester, Misse
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Smart homes, home energy management systems and real-time feedback- Lessons for influencing household energy consumption from a Swedish field study2018In: Energy and Buildings, ISSN 0378-7788, E-ISSN 1872-6178, Vol. 179, p. 15-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Home energy management systems (HEMS), providing energy feedback and smart features through in-home displays, have the potential to support more sustainable household decisions concerning energy consumption. However, recent findings from European smart metering trials have reduced the optimism, suggesting only modest savings from energy feedback. In this paper, we investigate the potential of HEMS to foster reductions in energy use, focusing on a population segment of particular relevance; high-income and highly educated households, considered as early adopters of smart grid technologies. Covering 154 households participating in a field trial in a sustainable city district in Stockholm, Sweden during one year, this study draws on the analyses of smart meter electricity and hot tap water data and in-depth interviews to provide an increased understanding of how feedback and features are perceived, used, and acted upon, and resulting effects on awareness, behavior, and consumption. Our results show that impact on energy consumption varies widely across individual households, suggesting that households respond to energy feedback highly individually. Although HEMS may lead to increased awareness of energy consumption, as well as increased home comfort, several obstacles for energy consumption behavioral change are identified. Drawing from these findings, we suggest policy implications and key issues for future research.

  • 29.
    Pereverza, Kateryna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Pasichnyi, Oleksii
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology. Environmental Policy Centre, Finnish Environment Institute SYKE.
    Kordas, Olga
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Strategic planning for sustainable heating in cities: A morphological method for scenario development and selection2017In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 186, no Part 2, p. 1115-1125Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to more sustainable heating systems requires socio-technical approaches to strategic planning. Scenario development plays a key role in strategic planning, as the process supports the development of future visions and actions required for their realisation. However, new approaches to scenario development are required to address the limitations of conventional scenario development methods, such as the cognitive barriers of ‘groupthink’, reluctance to consider ‘outside-the-box’ options, handling of complexity, and ad hoc scenario selection and general non-transparency of scenario development processes. This paper describes the development and implementation of a novel method for scenario development and selection in the context of participatory strategic planning for sustainable heating in cities. The method is based on the morphological approach and a number of scenario criteria including transparency,reliabilitycoveragecompletenessrelevance/densitycreativityinterpretabilityconsistencydifferentiation and plausibility. It integrates creativity workshops and interdisciplinary stakeholder participation to enhance the ownership and legitimacy of the scenarios. The approach entails the generation of a complete space of scenarios for heating systems and reduction of this space using cross-consistency analysis and project-specific requirements. Iterative development and implementation of the method is illustrated using two participatory backcasting projects focused on strategic planning for providing a comfortable indoor climate for Bila Tserkva, Ukraine, and Niš, Serbia by the year 2030. The results demonstrate that the method helps overcome the limitations of conventional approaches to scenario development and supports rigorous and transparent selection of a scenario set for participatory analysis. The method fostered the elicitation of consensus-based scenarios for more sustainable heating systems in both cities with regard to the quality of indoor comfort, environmental impact, resource efficiency and energy security.

  • 30.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Smart Urban Metabolism: Towards a Real-Time Understanding of the Energy and Material Flows of a City and Its Citizens2015In: The Journal of urban technology, ISSN 1063-0732, E-ISSN 1466-1853, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 65-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban metabolism is a concept employed to understand the flow of energy and materials through urban areas. However, applying this approach at the city level has been limited by the lack of data at this scale. This paper reviews the current application of the urban metabolism concept and proposes the concept of a “smart urban metabolism” (SUM). Through integrating ICT and smart-city technologies, the SUM model can provide real-time feedback on energy and material flows, from the level of the household to the urban district. This is highlighted through an example of its application in the Stockholm Royal Seaport, Sweden.

  • 31.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    van der Heijde, Bram
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Big Data GIS Analytics Towards Efficient Waste Management in Stockholm2014In: Proceedings of the 2014 conference ICT for Sustainability / [ed] Höjer, Lago, Wangel, Stockholm, 2014, p. 140-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents preliminary findings from a big data analysis and GIS to identify the efficiency of waste management and transportation in the City of Stockholm. The aim of this paper is to identify inefficiencies in waste collection routes in the city of Stockholm, and to suggest potential improvements. Based on a large data set consisting of roughly half a million entries of waste fractions, weights, and locations, a series of new waste generation maps was developed. This was the outcome of an extensive data curation process, followed by batch geocoding of the curated entries. Thereafter, the maps were generated that describe what waste fraction comes from where and how it is collected. Finally, a preliminary analysis of the route efficiency was conducted. Maps of selected vehicle routes were constructed in detail and the efficiencies of the routes for the first half of July 2013 were assessed using the efficiency index (kg waste/km). It is concluded that substantial inefficiencies were revealed, and a number of intervention measures are discussed to increase the efficiency of waste management, including a shared waste collection vehicle fleet.

  • 32.
    Shahrokni, Hossein
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Årman, Louise
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Lazarevic, David
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Nilsson, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Implementing Smart Urban Metabolism in the Stockholm Royal Seaport: Smart City SRS2015In: Journal of Industrial Ecology, ISSN 1088-1980, E-ISSN 1530-9290, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 917-929Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For half a century, system scientists have relied on urban metabolism (UM) as a pragmatic framework to support the needed transition toward sustainable urban development. It has been suggested that information and communication technology (ICT) and, more specifically, smart cities can be leveraged in this transition. Given the recent advances in smart cities, smart urban metabolism (SUM) is considered a technology-enabled evolution of the UM framework, overcoming some of its current limitations. Most significantly, the SUM framework works at high temporal (up to real-time) and spatial (down to household/individual) resolutions. This article presents the first implementation of SUM in the Smart City Stockholm Royal Seaport R&D project; it further analyzes barriers and discusses the potential long-term implications of the findings. Four key performance indicators (KPIs) are generated in real time based on the integration of heterogeneous, real-time data sources. These are kilowatt-hours per square meter, carbon dioxide equivalents per capita, kilowatt-hours of primary energy per capita, and share of renewables percentage. These KPIs are fed back on three levels (household, building, and district) on four interfaces, developed for different audiences. The most challenging barrier identified was accessing and integrating siloed data from the different data owners (utilities, building owners, and so forth). It is hard to overcome unless a significant value is perceived. A number of long-term opportunities were described in the SUM context; among those, it is envisioned that SUM could enable a new understanding of the causalities that govern urbanism and allow citizens and city officials to receive feedback on the system consequences of their choices.

1 - 32 of 32
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