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  • 1. Cocron, P.
    et al.
    Neumann, I.
    Kreußlein, M.
    Wanner, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Bierbach, M.
    Krems, J. F.
    Regenerative braking failures in battery electric vehicles and their impact on the driver2018In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 71, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A unique feature of battery electric vehicles (BEV) is their regenerative braking system (RBS) to recapture kinetic energy in deceleration maneuvers. If such a system is triggered via gas pedal, most deceleration maneuvers can be executed by just using this pedal. This impacts the driving task as different deceleration strategies can be applied. Previous research has indicated that a RBS failure leading to a sudden reduced deceleration represents an adverse event for BEV drivers. In the present study, we investigated such a failure's impact on the driver's evaluation and behavior. We conducted an experiment on a closed-off test track using a modified BEV that could temporarily switch off the RBS. One half of the 44 participants in the study received information about an upcoming RBS failure whereas the other half did not. While 91% of the drivers receiving prior information noticed the RBS failure, only 48% recognized it in the “uniformed” group. In general, the failure and the perception of its occurrence influenced the driver's evaluation and behavior more than receiving prior information. Nevertheless, under the tested conditions, drivers kept control and were able to compensate for the RBS failure. As the participants drove quite simple maneuvers in our experiment, further studies are needed to validate our findings using more complex driving settings. Given that RBS failures could have severe consequences, appropriate information and warning strategies for drivers are necessary.

  • 2.
    Cocron, Peter
    et al.
    TU Chemnitz.
    Neumann, Isabel
    TU Chemnitz.
    Kreußlein, Maria
    TU Chemnitz.
    Pereira Cocron, Maria
    TU Chemnitz.
    Wanner, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Bierbach, Maxim
    Federal Highway Research Institute (BAST).
    Augusto, Bruno
    VTI.
    Driver and vehicle behaviour to power train failures in electric vehicles – experimental results of field and simulator studies.2014Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    see fulltext

  • 3.
    Daniel, Wanner
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Nybacka, Mikael
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Experimental implementation of a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with individual-wheel drives2016In: The Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks - Proceedings of the 24th Symposium of the International Association for Vehicle System Dynamics, IAVSD 2015, CRC Press, 2016, p. 147-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with four individual-wheel drives, which are based on wheel hub motors. The control strategy to handle the faults is based on the principle of control allocation and is implemented in an experimental vehicle. Experimental tests has been performed with the experimental vehicle and with simulation. The results show that the directional stability of such a vehicle can be improved for the analysed manoeuvre and failure mode, and the tendencies of the experimental results correspond with the simulation results. It has been found that the lateral and yaw motion could be strongly improved. 

  • 4.
    Wanner, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Controlling over-actuated road vehicles during failure conditions2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of electrification of chassis and driveline systems in road vehicles is to reduce the global emissions and their impact on the environment. The electrification of such systems in vehicles is enabling a whole new set of functionalities improving safety, handling and comfort for the user. This trend is leading to an increased number of elements in road vehicles such as additional sensors, actuators and software codes. As a result, the complexity of vehicle components and subsystems is rising and has to be handled during operation. Hence, the probability of potential faults that can lead to component or subsystem failures deteriorating the dynamic behaviour of road vehicles is becoming higher. Mechanical, electric, electronic or software faults can cause these failures independently or by mutually influencing each other, thereby leading to potentially critical traffic situations or even accidents. There is a need to analyse faults regarding their influence on the dynamic behaviour of road vehicles and to investigate their effect on the driver-vehicle interaction and to find new control strategies for fault handling.

    A structured method for the classification of faults regarding their influence on the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of a road vehicle is proposed. To evaluate this method, a broad failure mode and effect analysis was performed to identify and model relevant faults that have an effect on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. This fault classification method identifies the level of controllability, i.e. how easy or difficult it is for the driver and the vehicle control system to correct the disturbance on the vehicle behaviour caused by the fault.

    Fault-tolerant control strategies are suggested which can handle faults with a critical controllability level in order to maintain the directional stability of the vehicle. Based on the principle of control allocation, three fault-tolerant control strategies are proposed and have been evaluated in an electric vehicle with typical faults. It is shown that the control allocation strategies give a less critical trajectory deviation compared to an uncontrolled vehicle and a regular electronic stability control algorithm. An experimental validation confirmed the potential of this type of fault handling using one of the proposed control allocation strategies.

    Driver-vehicle interaction has been experimentally analysed during various failure conditions with typical faults of an electric driveline both at urban and motorway speeds. The driver reactions to the failure conditions were analysed and the extent to which the drivers could handle a fault were investigated. The drivers as such proved to be capable controllers by compensating for the occurring failures in time when they were prepared for the eventuality of a failure. Based on the experimental data, a failure-sensitive driver model has been developed and evaluated for different failure conditions. The suggested fault classification method was further verified with the conducted experimental studies.

    The interaction between drivers and a fault-tolerant control system with the occurrence of a fault that affects the vehicle dynamic stability was investigated further. The control allocation strategy has a positive influence on maintaining the intended path and the vehicle stability, and supports the driver by reducing the necessary corrective steering effort. This fault-tolerant control strategy has shown promising results and its potential for improving traffic safety.

  • 5.
    Wanner, Daniel
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Faults and their influence on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase of electronics in road vehicles comes along with a broad variety of possibilitiesin terms of safety, handling and comfort for the users. A rising complexityof the vehicle subsystems and components accompanies this development and has tobe managed by increased electronic control. More potential elements, such as sensors,actuators or software codes, can cause a failure independently or by mutually influencingeach other. There is a need of a structured approach to sort the faults from avehicle dynamics stability perspective.This thesis tries to solve this issue by suggesting a fault classification method and faulttolerantcontrol strategies. Focus is on typical faults of the electric driveline and thecontrol system, however mechanical and hydraulic faults are also considered. Duringthe work, a broad failure mode and effect analysis has been performed and the faultshave been modeled and grouped based on the effect on the vehicle dynamic behaviour.A method is proposed and evaluated, where faults are categorized into different levelsof controllability, i. e. levels on how easy or difficult it is to control a fault for the driver,but also for a control system.Further, fault-tolerant control strategies are suggested that can handle a fault with acritical controllability level. Two strategies are proposed and evaluated based on thecontrol allocation method and an electric vehicle with typical faults. It is shown thatthe control allocation approaches give less critical trajectory deviation compared to noactive control and a regular Electronic Stability Control algorithm.To conclude, this thesis work contributes with a methodology to analyse and developfault-tolerant solutions for electric vehicles with improved traffic safety.

  • 6.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Modelling and experimental evaluation of driver behaviour during single wheel hub motor failures2015In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on Future Active Safety Technology Towards zero traffic accidents (FASTzero'15), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A failure-sensitive driver model has been developed in the research study presented in this paper. The model is based on measurements of human responses to dierent failure conditions inuencing the vehicle directional stability in a moving-base driving simulator. The measurements were made in a previous experimental study where test subjects were exposed to three sudden failure conditions that required adequate corrective measures to maintain the vehicle control and regain the planned trajectory. A common driver model and a failure-sensitive driver model have been compared, and results for the latter agree well with the measured data. The proposed failure-sensitive driver model is capable of maintaining the vehicle control and regaining the planned trajectory similarly to the way in which humans achieved this during a wheel hub motor failure in one of the rear wheels.

  • 7.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Design and experimental evaluation of a fault-tolerant control strategy with and without a driver in the loopManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, a fault-tolerant control strategy for an electric vehicle is developed and analysed for a wheel hub motor failure during a straight line driving manoeuvre. Based on the control allocation principle, an analytical approach is compared to an optimisation approach and both are investigated for their suitability to handle such failures. The analytical control allocation strategy has shown promising results similar to the optimal control allocation strategy. The improvements in vehicle stability and maintained desired path are also verified by experiments. The analytical approach is implemented in an experimental vehicle verifying the simulation results without driver in the loop. An experimental study including drivers is further conducted to analyse the influence of the control allocation strategy on the driver-vehicle interaction for the same manoeuvre. Further improvements for vehicle stability and lateral deviation are found for the driver study when an analytical control allocation strategy is included. The driver-vehicle interaction to a fault is improved strongly due to controller intervention. This fault-tolerant control strategy has shown promising results and its potential to improve traffic safety.

  • 8.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Fault classification method for the driving safety of electrified vehicles2014In: Vehicle System Dynamics, ISSN 0042-3114, E-ISSN 1744-5159, Vol. 52, no 5, p. 704-732Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fault classification method is proposed which has been applied to an electric vehicle. Potential faults in the different subsystems that can affect the vehicle directional stability were collected in a failure mode and effect analysis. Similar driveline faults were grouped together if they resembled each other with respect to their influence on the vehicle dynamic behaviour. The faults were physically modelled in a simulation environment before they were induced in a detailed vehicle model under normal driving conditions. A special focus was placed on faults in the driveline of electric vehicles employing in-wheel motors of the permanent magnet type. Several failures caused by mechanical and other faults were analysed as well. The fault classification method consists of a controllability ranking developed according to the functional safety standard ISO 26262. The controllability of a fault was determined with three parameters covering the influence of the longitudinal, lateral and yaw motion of the vehicle. The simulation results were analysed and the faults were classified according to their controllability using the proposed method. It was shown that the controllability decreased specifically with increasing lateral acceleration and increasing speed. The results for the electric driveline faults show that this trend cannot be generalised for all the faults, as the controllability deteriorated for some faults during manoeuvres with low lateral acceleration and low speed. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to various other types of road vehicles and faults.

  • 9.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Influence of vehicle parameters on directional stability during electric powertrain faults in passenger cars2014In: Proceedings of the FISITA 2014 World Automotive Congress, Maastricht, The Netherlands, June 2-6, 2014 / [ed] International Federation of Automotive Engineering Societies, 2014, p. 1-12Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Electric powertrain faults that could occur during normal driving can affect the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and might result in significant course deviations. The severity depends both on the characteristics of the fault itself as well as on how sensitive the vehicle reacts to this type of fault. In this work, a sensitivity study is conducted on the effects of vehicle design parameters, such as geometries and tyre characteristics, and fault characteristics. The vehicle specifications are based on three different parameter sets representing a small city car, a medium-sized sedan and a large passenger car. The evaluation criteria cover the main motions of the vehicle, i.e. longitudinal velocity difference, lateral offset and side slip angle on the rear axle as indicator of the directional stability. A design of experiments approach is applied and the influence on the course deviation is analysed for each studied parameter separately and for all first order combinations. Vehicle parameters of high sensitivity have been found for each criterion. The mass factor is highly relevant for all three motions, while the additional factors wheel base, track width, yaw inertia and vehicle velocity are mainly influencing the lateral and the yaw motion. Changes in the tyre parameters are in general less significant than the vehicle parameters. Among the tyre parameters, the stiffness factor of the tyres on the rear axle has the major influence resulting in a reduction of the course deviation for a stiffer tyre. The fault amplitude is an important fault parameter, together with the fault starting gradient and number of wheels with fault. In this study, it was found that a larger vehicle representing a SUV is more sensitive to these types of faults. To conclude, the result of an electric powertrain fault can cause significant course deviations for all three vehicle types studied.

  • 10.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Edrén, Johannes
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jonasson, Mats
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Fault-Tolerant Control of Electric Vehicles with In-Wheel Motors through Tyre-Force Allocation2012In: Proceedings of the 11th International Symposium on Advanced Vehicle Control, Seoul: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers (JSAE) , 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a fault handling strategy for electric vehicles with in-wheel motors. The ap-plied control algorithm is based on tyre-force allocation. One complex tyre-force allocation meth-od, which requires non-linear optimization, as well as a simpler tyre force allocation method are developed and applied. A comparison between them is conducted and evaluated against a standard reference vehicle with an Electronic Stability Control (ESC) algorithm. The faults in consideration are electrical faults that can arise in in-wheel motors of permanent-magnet type. The results show for both tyre-force allocation methods an improved re-allocation after a severe fault and thus re-sults in an improved state trajectory recovery. Thereby the proposed fault handling strategy be-comes an important component to improve system dependability and secure vehicle safety.

  • 11.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Kreußlein, Maria
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Augusto, Bruno
    VTI Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on vehicle and driver behaviourManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research work studies the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behaviour of electric vehicles and the corresponding driver reactions. An experimental study in a moving-base driving simulator is conducted to analyse the inuence of single wheel hub motor failures for motorway speeds. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated objectively on the dynamic behaviour of the vehicle and compared to the subjective evaluation. Findings indicate that critical trac situations impairing trac safety can occur for motorway speeds. Clear counteractions by the drivers had to be taken.

  • 12.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Neumann, Isabel
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Cocron, Peter
    Department of Psychology, Technische Universitat Chemnitz, Chemnitz, Germany.
    Bierbach, Maxim
    Active Vehicle Safety, Emissions and Energy, Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt), Bergisch Gladbach, Germany.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Experimental study on single wheel hub motor failures and their impact on the driver-vehicle behavior2016In: Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences & Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2015, Boston, USA: ASME Press, 2016, article id UNSP V003T01A001Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental field study investigating the impact of single wheel hub motor failures on the dynamic behavior of a vehicle and the corresponding driver reaction is presented in this work. The experiment is performed at urban speeds on a closed off test track. The single wheel hub motor failure is emulated with an auxiliary brake system in a modified electric vehicle. Driver reaction times are derived from the measured data and discussed in their experimental context. The failure is rated and evaluated objectively based on the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. Findings indicate that driver reactions are more apparent for the accelerator pedal compared to the steering wheel response. The controllability evaluation of the vehicle behavior shows that no critical traffic situation occurs for the tested failure conditions. However, even small deviations of the vehicle can impair traffic safety, specifically for other traffic participants like bicyclist and pedestrians.

  • 13.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault-tolerant vehicle design is an emerging inter-disciplinary research domain, which is of increasedimportance due to the electrification of automotive systems. The goal of fault-tolerant systems is to handleoccuring faults under operational condition and enable the driver to get to a safe stop. This paperpresents results from an extended survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design. It aims to provide a holisticview on the fault-tolerant aspects of a vehicular system. An overview of fault-tolerant systems in generaland their design premises is given as well as the specific aspects related to automotive applications. Thepaper highlights recent and prospective development of vehicle motion control with integrated chassiscontrol and passive and active fault-tolerant control. Also, fault detection and diagnosis methods arebriefly described. The shift on control level of vehicles will be accompanied by basic structural changeswithin the network architecture. Control architecture as well as communication protocols and topologiesare adapted to comply with the electrified automotive systems. Finally, the role of regulations andinternational standardization to enable fault-tolerant vehicle design is taken into consideration.

  • 14.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    StenssonTrigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Jerrelind, Jenny
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering.
    Survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design2012In: World Electric Vehicle Journal, ISSN 2032-6653, E-ISSN 2032-6653, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 598-609Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fault-tolerant vehicle design is an emerging inter-disciplinary research domain, which is of increased importance due to the electrification of automotive systems. The goal of fault-tolerant systems is to handle occuring faults under operational condition and enable the driver to get to a safe stop. This paper presents results from an extended survey on fault-tolerant vehicle design. It aims to provide a holistic view on the fault-tolerant aspects of a vehicular system. An overview of fault-tolerant systems in general and their design premises is given as well as the specific aspects related to automotive applications. The paper highlights recent and prospective development of vehicle motion control with integrated chassis control and passive and active fault-tolerant control. Also, fault detection and diagnosis methods are briefly described. The shift on control level of vehicles will be accompanied by basic structural changes within the network architecture. Control architecture as well as communication protocols and topologies are adapted to comply with the electrified automotive systems. Finally, the role of regulations and international standardization to enable fault-tolerant vehicle design is taken into consideration.

  • 15.
    Wanner, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Wallmark, Oskar
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Electrical Energy Conversion.
    Jonasson, Mats
    Volvo Cars AB.
    Drugge, Lars
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Stensson Trigell, Annika
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences (SCI), Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Vehicle Dynamics.
    Control allocation strategies for an electric vehicle with a wheel hub motor failure2015In: International Journal of Vehicle Systems Modelling and Testing, ISSN 1745-6436, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 263-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three fault-tolerant control strategies for electric vehicles with wheel hub motors are presented and compared, which are all based on the control allocation principle. The main objective is to maintain the directional stability of the vehicle in case of a component failure during high speed manoeuvres. Two simplified strategies that are suited for on-board implementation are derived and compared to an optimal control allocation strategy and a reference vehicle with a basic electronic stability control system. The occurring faults are considered to be in the electric high-voltage system that can arise in wheel hub motors. All three control allocation strategies show improved re-allocation of traction forces after a severe fault, and hence an improved directional stability. However, the performance of both simplified algorithms shows limitations in case of force demands outside the capabilities of the respective actuator. This work shows that vehicle safety is increased by the proposed fault-tolerant control strategies.

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