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  • 1. Barthel, Stephan
    et al.
    Colding, Johan
    Ernstson, Henrik
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Philosophy and History of Technology, History of Science, Technology and Environment.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Kärsten, Carl
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Chans sätta Stockholm på kartan2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Sätta Stockholm på kartan
  • 2.
    Bergström, Anders
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    KI Arkitektur och kunskapsmiljö: Tävlingen/Etableringen/Förnyelsen2010 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities, like many other institutions in today’s society, are to such an extent connected to their buildings that activity and built structures can be difficult to separate from each other. What we can begin to see is how people have always used building to establish and maintain both societal functions and more everyday customs and practices. Activities that manage to establish themselves in built form become a natural and supportive part of our material reality, whereas activities that do not may have problems surviving. In our times, characterized by continuous change, established solutions can also be in the way of new development and hinder us from seeing how the built environment could be designed in a different way.

    Seen from this perspective, KI – Karolinska Institutet – constitutes an interesting example between consciously shaped environment and highly qualified academic activity. Karolinska Institutet is since long one of Swedens most creative knowledge environments. The institute’s buildings have come to over a long period of time and is characterized by high ambitions, where different ideas of the conditions of knowledge production have governed both the overall plan and the design of individual buildings. By clarifying these ideas, and simultaneously investigating how the built result works, we hope to contribute not only to the understanding of the development of Karolinska Institutet, but to e more general knowledge of the relation between architecture and knowledge environment as well.

     

  • 3.
    Colding, Johan
    et al.
    The Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ekosystemtjänster i Stockholmsregionen2013Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 4.
    Koch, Daniel
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Bergström, Anders
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, History and Theory of Architecture.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Configuring Academia: Academic entities and spatial identities2012In: Proceedings: Eighth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Margareta Greene, José Reyes & Andrea Castro, 2012, p. 8147:1-8147:21Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academia has a long tradition of structuring itself around academic subjects, often epitomized through architectural manifestations such as individual buildings and whole campi. These materializations serve as sites of research and education, but also serve to describe the university as whole as well as its institutional parts, their definitions and their interrelations. This description goes deeper than simple definition of specific buildings for specific activities or subjects, but rather describes the idea of academic structures and relations between different people in the campi. This paper makes a comparative study of one of the more successful research universities in Stockholm, studying the use of spatial configuration and programming when the main campus was established in the first decade after the second world war, and how it was used in the following large-scale expansion beginning in the 1960s. It shows how, for both pragmatic and ideological reasons, radical shifts in the relation between buildings and academic subjects, as well as academic individuals and the units central to these descriptions, have taken place in the years in-between, and scrutinizes some of the effects coming with such a change.

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  • 5.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 1 Perspektiv och utgångspunkter2015Report (Other academic)
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  • 6.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 2 Metoder: sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser2015Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 7.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 3 Sociala stadsbyggnadsanalyser i Göteborg2015Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 8.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 4 Stadsrumsanalys som designstöd2015Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 9.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dela[d] Stad: Stadsbyggande och segregation: 5 Summerande reflektioner2015Report (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 10.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Marcus, Lars
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Streets for co-presence?: Mapping potentials2015In: Proceedings of the 10th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Kayvan Karimi, Laura Vaughan, Kerstin Sailer, Garyfalia Palaiologou, Tom Bolton, London: Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London , 2015, p. 108:1-108:17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In  times  of  increasing  residential  segregation  in  cities  the  potential  for  interplay  between  local  inhabitants and non-­‐locals in urban public space becomes increasingly important. By sharing space we gain information and knowledge from our fellow citizens (Granovetter, 1983), and are enabled to participate in processes that negotiate social structures, attitudes, norms and acceptable behaviours (Giddens, 1984; Zukin, 2005). From this point of departure streets as well as local squares and centres appear to have a key role providing an arena for interplay between different social groups and an arena for exchanging information and are seen as crucial for providing access to opportunities and various urban resources (Young, 1996). Many neighbourhoods, however, have proved to fail in this respect and in areas that today face problems related to social exclusion in Sweden the streets are often characterized by co-­‐absence rather than co-­‐presence and there is an evident ruptured interface between  locals  and  non-­‐locals  (Legeby,  2013).  We  argue  that  patterns  of  co-­‐presence  to  a  large  extent are influenced by urban form and by the morphological properties that also is related to what kind of non-­‐residential activities are likely to emerge locally. This paper aims to highlight the critical role of public space and demonstrate how configurational properties may be analysed and described so that it becomes clear if and where urban design interventions can be used in order to create more favourable conditions and improve access to both various urban resources and to an urban life with a mix  of  locals  and  non-­‐locals.  In  a  project  conducted  in  collaboration  with  the  city  of  Gothenburg  seven neighbourhoods are analysed according to the potential for co-­‐presence in public urban space, and according to access to urban resources; two aspects identified as highly relevant from an urban segregation  perspective.  This  paper  uses  a  three  pronged  approach  that  combines  configurational  analysis, accessibility analysis and observations, and various diagrammatical representations of the results  are  presented.  The  findings  establish  that  several  of  the  neighbourhoods  prove  to  hold  unfavourable conditions as a result of their spatial configuration. Nevertheless, the study illustrates a way forward whereby public planning can be supported by socio-­‐spatial analysis and more accurately operate by using urban design to reach more equal living conditions and overcome social exclusion.

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  • 11. Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    Marcus, Lars
    Does the urban structure of Swedish cities inhibit the sharing of public space?2011In: Built Environment, ISSN 0263-7960, Vol. 37, no 2, p. 155-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that a strong focus on residential segregation limits the understanding of the role of the built environment. The city is used as more than just a place of residence; urban life is far from restricted to where we live. The potential for interplay that develops as people share public space is argued to be just as important for integration processes as the residential mix. In addition, this article examines shortcomings related to the definition of residential segregation because of limitations within the scientific analysis of urban space: the evident difficulties in delimiting relevant geographical units and deli­miting relevant social groups. The study is based on empirical analysis of Södertälje, Sweden. Södertälje topped international news when its mayor informed the US Congress that the city had managed to receive more refugees from the war in Iraq than the US and Canada combined. However, to what extent are these new immigrants given access to Swedish society through everyday practices? The results highlight how segregation in public space – including impaired accessibility to a range of resources such as places of work and contact with other people – is a very strong feature of excluded areas and is strongly disadvantageous for newcomers. These results challenge some of the beliefs in the current public debate as well as some of the principles used by Swedish authorities to ameliorate segregation.

  • 12.
    Legeby, Ann
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Tahvilzadeh, Nazem
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Urban and Regional Studies.
    Storstäder i Samverkan: Stadsbyggandets sociala dimension2015Report (Other academic)
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    Storstäder i samverkan (1)
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    Storstäder i samverkan (2)
  • 13.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Albano and the academic broadband north of central Stockholm: Evaluation and design support for strategic development of Stockholms major academic area2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Balancing quantitative analysis and social concern2012In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 5-6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rereading Julienne Hanson’s ‘Urban transformations: A history of design ideas’, published in Urban Design International in 2000, one is immediately reminded of Hanson’s versatile research work that apart from extensive studies on urban issues, also includes major contributions to the research on buildings, architectural history and design methodology, which all are distinctly present in ‘Urban transformations’. As a matter of fact, this article can to equal degrees be characterised as a piece of original architectural history, a contribution to analytical methodology, a broad and thorough empirical study of the social implications of housing estates in the UK, or as a critical reflection in design methodology. This is a pattern recognisable in many articles by Hanson, why one is also reminded of the unfortunate fact that there are several such broad and well-investigated themes of hers that so far have not been realised in full-length books.

  • 15.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Debatten om staden behöver distinktion2012In: Arkitekten, ISSN 0903-2347, no 2, p. 55-60Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Det nya Stockholm skapas i det tysta2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Det nya Stockholm skapas i det tysta
  • 17.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Kort om arkitektur: Att lämna Fagersta – Bosse Bergmans samlade texter2011In: Arkitektur, ISSN 0004-2021, no 3, p. 12-13Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kommentar till Bosse Bergmans bok "En gång talade man om staden" (2010). "Att ge ut lejonparten av hans arbeten under 40 år, dock inte böcker och längre forskningsrapporter, i en samlad volym /860 sidor/ är inte bara en kulturgärning utan en samhällsgärning. ... unikt inlägg i debatten om svensk stadsutveckling."

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    Att lämna Fagersta – Bosse Bergmans samlade texter
  • 18.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Planning is political but not politics: the need to identify and develop theory on planning media2011In: Is planning past politics: Political displacements and democratic deficits in contemporary / [ed] Metzger, J.,Allmendinger, P., Osterlynck, S., KTH , 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As in politics, we find in planning an inherent confusion of means and ends. As an ideologically based endeavour, politics clearly has goals for society but comprises, just as importantly, also means to achieve these goals. Planning is a critical method for achieving political goals, which of course makes urban planning, and adherent practices, such as urban governance and urban design, inherently political instruments. As such planning is clearly part of the means of politics. But does that make planning politics? Even though it is often said that planning also generates goals for politics, these goals can hardly be accepted as politics unless politically sanctioned. And even if such sanctioning in planning practice often is circumvented, this must surely be seen as a flaw in planning rather than a formative characteristic. Based on this rather conventional argument this paper therefore takes the stance that planning clearly is political but can not, or rather should not, be understood as politics.

    More importantly, the paper argues that a major reason that this conventional wisdom has been so debated in recent decades, is due to inherent theoretical problems in planning itself, especially when it comes to defining its ends and means - the failure to accept that planning is not everything, if you like. The paper argues that to remedy this it can, in contrast to the focus on the process of planning that has been prevalent for a long time in planning discourse, be fruitful to focus the products of planning, such as policy documents, legal frameworks and built neighbourhoods, not least when it comes to identifying its means, but in extension maybe also its ends.

    Of critical importance here is the fact that planning can never intervene directly in the urban processes it aims to structure and shape, but uses different intermediary systems, such as discursive, institutional and spatial systems, resulting exactly in such things as policy documents, legal frameworks and built neighbourhoods. Such systems do change over time but they still represent the most tangible products of planning, which often also show a remarkable durability. Rather than dismissing these as mere tools for the grander goals of politics itself, it is argued that they should be taken most seriously and maybe even be accepted as the ends of planning. This would indeed not imply a dislocation of planning from politics, only a more definite delimitation between the two that clearly leaves the political goals in the realm of politics. What is more, it also points to the first direction in planning in need of theoretical development, according to this paper, the relation between the intermediary systems used in planning and the urban processes addressed by political goals, or put differently, theory on planning as intermediary product.

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    Marcus (2011) Planning is political but not politics
  • 19.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Principles of social-ecological urbanism2013Report (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Spatial Capital: A Proposal for an Extension of Space Syntax into a More General Urban Morphology2010In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 30-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although space syntax is often presented as a configurational theory of architecture, this tends to hide the more fundamental claim that it is also an analytical theory, a theory based on analytical science rather than on the normative or ideological claims normally found in architectural theory. This article proposes an extension of such an analytical theory in the context of urbanism by using space syntax areas in urban morphology that earlier have not been directly part of space syntax analysis. If one allows for some simplification, one can say that the main variable of urban form analysed in space syntax is accessibility. This article introduces two other variables: density and diversity. Density, the dominating variable in geographic analysis of urban space, is fundamental for the development of knowledge about urban space and in the practice of urban planning. Diversity, at least since Jane Jacob’s writing of The Death and Life of Great American Cities, has been another focus for urban analysis and urban planners, yet one that has proven to be more difficult to address.

             A study of an urban area in Stockholm identified three convincing correlations: 1.) a correlation between integration and movement; 2.) a correlation between accessible building density and population; and 3.) a correlation between accessible plots and diversity indices such as number of age groups and lines of businesses. Whereas the first correlation is not very surprising in the context of space syntax research and the second correlation is interesting mostly because of its original measuring technique, the third correlation must be considered surprising and an original finding.

    The present study proposes that the three ways to measure the three variables accessibility, density and diversity could be combined into a more general analytical theory of urban form, directly stemming from space syntax analysis, significantly widening the scope of space syntax into a more general urban morphology. In addition, it is proposed that these measurements capture something that can be called spatial capital, that also can engage adjacent scientific disciplines.

  • 21.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    The architecture of knowledge for educations in Urban Planning and Design2010In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 214-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The professional fields of urban planning and design are today facing challenges earlier unimagined. This call for a deeper understanding of the knowledge base of these professions, both when it comes to their central knowledge objects and their inherent knowledge process. Taking the development of a new master's course in urban planning and design at KTH in Stockholm as a point of departure, this article tries to do this by, on the one hand, extending on Bill Hillier's concept “the common language of space” as an intermediate between different professions in the field, and, on the other, design as a common work process for these professions. As also outlined by Hillier, this process is characterised by bringing together different forms of knowledge, such as generative and analytic knowledge, to which is added discursive knowledge. Taken together, it is proposed that they, both for practice and research, form the architecture of knowledge for the field.

  • 22.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Balfors, Berit
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Haas, Tigran
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment.
    A sustainable urban fabric: The development and application of analytical urban design theory2013In: Sustainable Stockholm: Exploring sustainability in Europe's greenest city / [ed] Metzger, J., and Rader Olsson, A., Routledge , 2013, p. 71-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University.
    Colding, Johan
    Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences .
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Critical Studies in Architecture.
    Ernstson, Henrik
    Stockholm University.
    Grahn, Sara
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Architectural Technologies.
    Torsvall, Jonas
    Kärsten, Carl
    Q-book Albano 4: Sustainability2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is the result of a collaboration between The Stockholm Resilience Centre at Stockholm University, The School of Architecture at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the Architectural firm KIT also based in Stockholm. It explores and discusses strategies for integrating novel social-ecological research within the planning and urban design practices aiming to delineate principles for an integrated and comprehensive social-ecological urban design practice. As focal case and example works the Albano campus area in Stockholm, with a strategic location at the crossroads between the three major universities in Stockholm as well as its inner city and the National City Park, the latter adressing the contested issue of expanding the university and city inside a large urban park of national interest. Taken together this critical location in a most informative way highlights several of the potentials and challenges that the contemporary planning and urban design fields are facing today.

    Q-book Albano 4 originated from the work by a inter- and transdisciplinary research team, in their effort to challenge existing development plans for the expansion of the Stockholm University campus over an area inside the National Urban Park. While the existing plans lacked a clear engagement with novel findings from research and design theory, and while the campus expansion was to be placed within a park with important biodiversity and cultural heritage, the team took upon them to articulate an alternative vision based on contemporary international and local research. Consequently, the team offered an alternative vision for the area, in contrast to the plans that the City had been offered by other architects and planners.

    Furthermore, through presenting this vision at an international academic conference open to the public, the real-estate developer Akademiska hus, a body within the Swedish state that manages university campuses across the country, making them one of the largest developers of their kind in the world, showed an interest and urged the team to develop their suggestion further. Through this support, time was given to deepen the principles of social-ecological urban design and to further develop the alternative vision for how the Albano area could be developed according to these principles. This included workshops with experts, and stakeholder meetings with civil society organizations.

    The alternative vision, in this process developed into this illustrated report that effectively joins theories of resilience, social-ecological systems and ecosystem services with theories of spatial analysis, urban morphology and design methodology, translating this new body of knowledge into principles and elements of social-ecological urban design, using the Albano site as case study.

     

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    Q-book Albano 4
  • 24.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    Department of Urban Design, Delfth University of Technology (TUD), Delft, Netherlands .
    Gren, Å.
    Can spatial form support urban ecosystem services: Developing descriptions and measures to capture the spatial demands for pollination using the framework of space syntax2014In: A/Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture, ISSN 1302-8324, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 255-270Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For sustainable urban development the idea of ecosystem services (ESS) is crucial, since it pinpoints how cities are dependent on local ecosystems and the wide range of services they provide for their welfare and survival. Pollination is an essential ESS for the majority of food production in the world and therefore also represents a tremendous monetary value that is provided by ecosystems for free. That wild pollinators are facing increasing threats due to urbanization and habitat fragmentation is therefore a distressing development. At the same time, it is also pointed out how cities have a great potential to sustain pollinator populations if properly designed and managed. However, the role of spatial form in supporting ecosystems services has so far not been studied. This is unfortunate, since it is at this scale that urban designers need knowledge if they are to support ESS. This paper presents, firstly, a conceptual discussion on the topic of spatial form of ESS and, secondly, a principal description of a methodological approach in which we propose to capture the spatial demands for pollination by developing descriptions and measures used in the framework of Space syntax. Thirdly, some preliminary results from a study in Stockholm will be presented as the ground for a discussion about the principal potentials of a spatial morphology of urban ecosystems.

  • 25.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Berghauser Pont, Meta
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Gren, Åsa
    The Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences.
    Can spatial form support urban ecosystem services: representing patches and connectivity zones for bees using space syntax mehodology2013In: Proceeding - 9th international space syntax symposium / [ed] Young, K., Park, H. and Seo, H., Sejong University Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the broad research field of sustainable urban development, we can identify a movement from a first generation of research and practice, primarily addressing mitigation strategies, to a second generation, broadening the field to also encompass strategies of adaptation. Most sustainable urban growth concepts (e.g. new urbanism, urban containment and smart growth) built on the findings from the first generation of research and have a strong focus on the transport-land use relation, aiming atreducing private (car) mobility and related CO2- emissions and air pollution. Research shows that higher density, land-use diversity and pedestrian-friendly designs generally reduce trip rates and encourage non-car mobility, although the results are still ambiguous (Colding et al, forthcoming). Creeping global environmental changes, natural catastrophes and volatile financial markets, highlight the need to put emphasis also on strategies of adaptation as a complement to environmental mitigation strategies of cities (Vale et al 2005). This type of research concerns the understanding of the resilience of urban systems in which urban systems are seen as integrated social-ecological systems, bridging the ancient dichotomy between human and ecological systems. Research shows that green spaces and its fragmentation are crucial for biodiversity and other ecosystem services. One of the most relevant variables affecting landscape fragmentation is population density (Jaeger 2000). Indeed, urban sprawl causes directly land cover changes at the urban fringe and impacts indirectly on the rural landscape progressively further away from the urban fringe by fragmenting both agricultural areas and woodlands (Salvati et al 2012). However, city compactness and higher densities decrease the amount and access to green space within cities (Pauleit et al 2005, Burton 2000).

    This paper especially focus on green space and its fragmentation and accessibility within cities and combine the human perspective on green space with the landscape ecological perspective in the aim to develop knowledge that opens for integration of eco-system design in urban design, moving towards an expanded professional practice of social-ecological urban design. To include the ecological perspective we use effective mesh density, which is a direct quantitative expression of landscape connectivity (Jaeger 2000) and biotope diversity (Marini et al 2010). To include the human perspective we build on the methods to measure cognitive accessibility developed within Space syntax research (Hillier 1996) and especially the measures proposed by Ståhle et al (2005, 2008) in which besides the measure of distance, also a measure of attraction is introduced. Through this we aim to include the described ecological measures in the framework of Space syntax, enabling us to use accessible green space both from a human and an ecological perspective. Important stepping-stone structures within the network (patches and links with more importance from one or both perspectives) can be traced and interventions can be proposed to improve (parts of) the system. This paper presents, firstly, a conceptual discussion on this topic and secondly, results from a study in Stockholm showing in principle the possibility of a spatial morphology of social-ecological urban systems

  • 26.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Colding, Johan
    KTH.
    Toward an integrated theory of spatial morphology and resilient urban systems2014In: Ecology and Society, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 55-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We take the first step in the development of a new field of research with the aim of merging spatial morphology and resilience science. This involves a revisiting and reunderstanding of the meaning of sustainable urban form. We briefly describe the fields of resilience science and spatial morphology. Drawing on a selected set of propositions in both fields, we put urban form in the context of the adaptive renewal cycle, a dynamic framework model used in resilience science to capture the dynamics of complex adaptive systems, of which urban systems are prime examples. We discuss the insights generated in this endeavor, dealing with some key morphological aspects in relation to four key attributes of resilience, i.e., "change," "diversity," "self-organization," and "learning." We discuss and relate these to urban form and other social variables, with special attention paid to the " backloop phase" of the adaptive renewal cycle. We conclude by postulating ways in which resilience thinking could contribute to the development of a new research frontier for addressing designs for resilient urban social-ecological systems, and end by proposing three strategic areas of research in such a field.

  • 27.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Colding, Johan
    Royal Swedish Academy of the Sciences.
    Towards a Spatial Morphology of Urban Social-Ecological Systems2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The discussion on sustainable urban development is ubiquitous these days. Concerning the more specific field of urban design and urban morphology we can identify a movement from a first generation of research and practice, primarily addressing climate change, and a second generation, broadening the field to also encompass biodiversity. The two have quite different implications for urban design and urban morphology. The first, stressing the integration of more advanced technological systems to the urban fabric, such as energy and waste disposal systems, but more conspicuously, public and private transport systems, often leading to rather conventional design solutions albeit technologically enhanced.

    The second generation ask for a more direct involvement of urban form, asking the question: how are future urban designs going to harbor not only social and economic systems, which they have always done, but ecological as well, that is, how are we in research on urban form, as support for future practice in urban design, develop knowledge that bridges the ancient dichotomy between human and ecological systems. This paper presents, firstly, a conceptual discussion on this topic, based in Resilience Theory and Urban Morphology, secondly, the layout of a principal research field towards a spatial morphology of urban social-ecological systems, where strategic research tasks are identified.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Towards social-ecological urban form
  • 28.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Colding, Johan
    The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholm University.
    Erixon, Hanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Critical Studies in Architecture.
    Utveckla Valhallavägen till Stockholms gröna bredband2012Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Brunkebergstorg, analysis of public space towards a development plan2010Report (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Södra City, Support in the development of new forms for a development plan for the South Central City in Stockholm2010Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    School of Architecture, Chalmers University of Technology.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Cities as implements or facilities: The need for a spatial morphology in smart city systems2017In: Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, ISSN 2399-8083, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 204-226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In light of the urgent threats presented by climate change and rapid urbanisation, interest in ‘smart city systems’ is mounting. In contrast to scholarship that poses ‘smartness’ as something that needs to be added to cities, recent developments in spatial morphology research pursue a view of the built fabric of cities as an extension of the cognitive human apparatus, as well as a material formulation of social, cultural and economic relations and processes. The built fabric of cities needs to be understood as a highly intelligent artefact in itself, rather than simple, dead matter. The current focus on high-tech systems risks concealing the fact that the machine is already there. In contrast to the technological ‘implements’ of smart city systems, this article looks at cities as ‘facilities’ – that is, as technologies that slow down, store and maintain energy as a resource for a variety of purposes. The article builds on space syntax research in order to give precision to the understanding of the affordances the cities offer their various processes and the ways in which cities operate as information storage and retrieval devices for individuals and for society. The city must be considered, we argue, in terms of a range of tangled, interdependent systems, reaching from individual buildings to the whole city, an understanding anchored in notions of ‘diversity’ and ‘density’ (recently gathered under the concept of ‘spatial capital’) and in research addressing how the distribution of space and artefacts serve as means of knowledge communication (specifically, in complex buildings such as libraries and department stores). In conclusion, we argue that existing discussions on ‘smart city systems’ would benefit acknowledgement of the role of cities as facilities.

  • 32.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Koch, Daniel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Guest  Editorial: Journal Of Space Syntax (JOSS)2010In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. vi-xArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When we, as guest editors of the first, special issue of the Journal of Space Syntax, were first asked to centre the selection of papers around the work of our own research group and the 'Scandinavian perspective', our reaction was not only humble surprise but also a certain amount of scepticism. While the request was flattering, there is so much high quality space syntax research ongoing throughout the world - as indeed the 7th Symposium showed - that the whole idea seemed alien to us. There are also several researchers using space syntax in Scandinavia outside of our research group, so we cannot claim to represent 'Scandinavian space syntax research'. Yet, after some consideration we agreed to do it, not because we feel we are the strongest or best in the field, but because of how we have come to regard the field and its current development, where we in Stockholm can serve as one of many examples of a process we think is positive, promising, and exciting.

    Much of this has to do with the emergence of local research groups, with their own styles and interpretations generated in part by how space syntax theory and method engages with local conditions such as new contexts, traditions, problems, and cultures. We believe it is a strength of the field that there are several emerging 'hubs' of space syntax research, and that these can be recognised not only by their selection of empirical cases but by how they seem to define 'space syntax'. In this sense, even if we cannot represent 'Scandinavian space syntax research', we can serve as an example of how space syntax is modulated as it enters a Scandinavian context. For this reason, in order to continue this line of discussion, it may serve best to begin with trying to briefly map out our context, before returning to the question of concurrent knowledge production and why local communities are of specific interest in the present situation.

  • 33.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Legeby, Ann
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    The need for co-presence in urban complexity: Measuring social capital using space syntax2012In: Proceedings Eigth International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Greene, M., 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of ‘cities as complex systems’ is well established within academia but rarely applied within professional practice. Therefore, a translation of knowledge is required, from the high theoretical discussions found in academic research to applicable knowledge professional practitioners can use. This paper argues that the concept of ‘co-presence’ has the potential to bridge space syntax to complexity theory while contributing to our understanding of complexity in cities. By applying space syntax, a connection between spatial form and co-presence is feasible and advanced theoretical discussions, mostly within the academic sphere, make it possible to link processes in urban space in a very direct way. It is argued that an individual’s everyday routines contribute to some of the most elaborate forms of societal organization, and these routines are partly made possible and visible through co-presence in public space. What makes this view relevant for architectural research is that both patterns of co-presence as well as the potential exchange between residents and non-residents among co-present people are largely influenced by the properties of urban form generated by urban design and architecture. While this paper mainly focuses on a theoretical discussion of the potential within space syntax to examine co-presence in a way that could be of critical importance in ‘complexity theory’, it also presents an empirical approach along with some preliminary results. Although the results do not yet prove that the study of local co-presence improves the understanding of urban ‘complexity’, we believe that the results are promising and that further exploration of possible connections is needed. The empirical data refers to the results from Södertälje and the preliminary results fromStockholm. The study examines the potential a neighbourhood affords, both regarding the size (or density) of co-presence in urban space, and the potential for an exchange with people from other parts of the city. Thus, the concept of co-presence is applied and refined to contribute to an understanding of how societal processes and phenomena are influenced by urban form.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Marcus & Legeby (2012)
  • 34.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE).
    Nordström, T.
    Stockholm central station: Creating spatial capital through urban design2012In: The Future of Cities and Regions: Simulation, Scenario and Visioning, Governance and Scale, Springer Netherlands , 2012, p. 297-321Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project concerns the most centrally located and spatially complex area in central Stockholm. It is located directly to the west of the internationally well-known Stockholm City area developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Presently significant reconstruction of the central station and its track areas is under way which will also open up a large new development area in one of the most attractive locations in Stockholm. For this project Spacescape, an architectural office specializing in analysis of urban space and urban development projects in relation to urban life qualities such as, attractiveness, public safety and retail support formed an integrated consultancy group together with architects and landscape architects, delivering evaluation and design support to the project. This concerned both an analysis of the current status of the area, including the spatially complex interior of the central station, as well as support and evaluation of the different stages in the proposal. The themes analysed included spatial capital (accessibility to the rest of the city, especially for people working and living in the city), pedestrian flows, wayfinding, recreational qualities and public safety. Through continuous analyses during the design process Spacescape were able to support the project in a direction providing greater benefits in these areas and telling images show how the new proposal could create a much better outcome than the current one. 

  • 35.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Nordström, Tobias
    Developing the spatial capital at the Stockholm Central Station2012In: The Future of Cities and Regions: Simulation, Scenario and Visioning, Governance and Scales / [ed] Caneparo, L., Bazanella, L., Corsico, F., Roccasalva, G., Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2012, p. 297-322Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This project concerns the most centrally located and spatially complex area in central Stockholm. It is located directly to the west of the internationally well-known Stockholm City area developed in the 1950s and 1960s. Presently significant reconstruction of the central station and its track areas is under way which will also open up a large new development area in one of the most attractive locations in Stockholm. For this project Spacescape, an architectural office specializing in analysis of urban space and urban development projects in relation to urban life qualities such as, attractiveness, public safety and retail support formed an integrated consultancy group together with architects and landscape architects, delivering evaluation and design support to the project. This concerned both an analysis of the current status of the area, including the spatially complex interior of the central station, as well as support and evaluation of the different stages in the proposal. The themes analysed included spatial capital (accessibility to the rest of the city, especially for people working and living in the city), pedestrian flows, wayfinding, recreational qualities and public safety. Through continuous analyses during the design process Spacescape were able to support the project in a direction providing greater benefits in these areas and telling images show how the new proposal could create a much better outcome than the current one.

  • 36.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Ståhle, Alexander
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture.
    Dahlhielm, Malin
    Spacescape AB.
    Architectural Knowledge and Complex Urban Space: Analysis of Five Proposals for Slussen in Stockholm2010In: Journal of Space Syntax, ISSN 2044-7507, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 177-198Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents, compares and evaluates five design proposals for remodelling the famous, or as some would say infamous, Slussen transport interchange in the Swedish capital, Stockholm. Slussen is strategically located where the locks between Lake Mälaren and the Baltic Sea meet the land bridge between northern and southern Sweden. It is now a major hub for Stockholm's road, bus, boat, rail and underground transport systems, which in 1935 was redesigned as integrated transport node in the modernist style. This has now become so physically deteriorated and obsolete that a series of proposals were put forward during the opening years of the new millennium for its complete remodelling. As a contribution to that exercise, the urban design practice Spacescape was commissioned to analyse and evaluate the likely performance of the various regeneration proposals for Slussen, using methodologies based on space syntax theory and other methods, in order to predict the likely outcome of each proposal on Stockhlom's urban life. In what follows, projects by Atelier Nouvel and Habiter Autrement, Big, Foster and Partners and Berg, Nyréns and finally Wingårdh and Tema have been compared and evaluated in the light of the goals set out in Stockholm's comprehensive city plan.

  • 37.
    Marcus, Lars
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Westin, Sara
    University of Uppsala.
    Suonperä Liebst, Lasse
    University of Copenhagen.
    Network buzz: conception and geometry of networks in geography, architecture and sociology2013In: Proceeding - 9th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Kim, Y., Park, H. and Seo,K., Sejong University Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of networks has in the recent decade rapidly risen to a top position in a long series of disciplines. Given that network is a key concept in space syntax theory and methodology, this paper investigates the origins and later development of network analysis in the adjacent fields of sociologyand geography, not least since networks often are seen as a language that can connect and translate between systems and phenomena addressed in different disciplines. The overarching aim in the paper is to contribute to a more precise understanding of what network concept actually is in use in space syntax and, in extension, what this particular version has to offer the larger and more established disciplines of sociology and geography.

    In sociology we find an initial discourse on networks already in Georg Simmel that to a certain degreechallenged the conception of sociology strongly promoted by the more powerful Émile Durkheim, but was later lost. The concept of networks, however, remerged, not least in the work of John Scott that made direct references to the emergence of network analysis in geography. In geography we find networks to be an intrinsic part of the quantitative revolution in the 1950s and 60s, heralded by Peter Haggett and others, where networks were promoted as an alternative to the regional approach in geography. This opens for an exciting vista of geometric foundations of geography, with pertinent repercussions also for architecture.

    However, this is clearly to move between distinctly different conceptions of networks; between what we can call social, physical, and cognitive networks. With this distinction in mind, there is a possibility to more precisely position networks as conceptualised in space syntax. Socially, networks in space syntax are representations of, what Durkheim referred to as, social morphology, which distinctly can never reach beyond the threshold of sociology but deals with “material substratum of society”, which thereby offers a distinct identity and limit to the field of space syntax. Geographically, space syntax thus represents a peculiar form of network analysis demarcated by the physical fact of the city. Such ontology of ‘regional networks’ (cf. Jessop) is not unusual in geography, but fundamentally alien to the contemporary concept of networks found within sociology, emphasizing networks as an ontological alternative to such region-thinking (Latour, Scott). Finally, and possibly most originally, representations of networks in space syntax seem to develop a particular strand of advanced cognitive geometry that extends and complements the aims of behavioural and cognitive geography.

  • 38.
    Sardari Sayyar, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Designing difference: Interpreting and testing jane Jacobs criteria for diversity in space syntax terms2013In: Proceedings - 9th International Space Syntax Symposium / [ed] Young, K., Park, H. and Seo, H., Sejong Unviersity Press , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The most influential contribution to the discussion about the relation between the urban fabric and the generation of diversity, was put forth fifty years ago by Jane Jacobs (Jacobs 1961). More specifically, she pointed out four major criteria that, according to her, were necessary for the development of diverse urban public spaces: small blocks, mix of primary uses, aged buildings and concentration of people. All these variables have since then been ubiquitous in debates on urban planning and design and have also been applied in design of concrete projects. At the same time, it is quite obvious how they all are quite vague and lack rigorous definitions, why, even though they have become popular truths, we know very little about their actual effects.

    In this paper we therefore redefine Jacobs' criteria in the analytically more rigorous concepts and measures developed in space syntax research and its extensions. We interpret Jacobs’ criterion ‘small blocks’ into measures of relative distance in the street network more particularly the measurements integration and choice, applied at different radii, argued to represent analysis at different scales. The criterion ‘concentration of people’ is interpreted as urban density. More precisely, this is measured using attraction accessibility analysis of night and day populations developed in the Place Syntax Tool (Ståhle, Marcus, and Karlström 2005), once again at different radii. ‘Mix of primary functions’ is partly covered by analysis of day and night populations but here we have also added accessibility to commercial activities, furthermore, an important difference is that we focus, the degree of mix and balance between these activities and not only their size. The final criterion ‘aged buildings’ is analysed as degree of land-division into discreet plots and parcels, which in earlier studies has proven to correlate well with diversity in urban uses (Marcus 2010).

    These measures are applied in an extensive empirical investigation of retail distribution in Stockholm comparing the intensity (amount of shops) and diversity (variation of shops) in both local suburban centres and between the inner city and the outer city, as a substantial test of Jacobs’ criteria in this form of space syntax interpretation. The results in general clearly support Jacobs’ argument but also give rise to further discussion. In extension, this study also contributes empirical support to the principally vital question, not least for space syntax research, about how spatial form not only play an important part in generating variations in size of co-presence throughout urban space, but also how it is part in generating variations of the constitution of co-presence, that is, the diversity of co-presence.

  • 39.
    Sardari Sayyar, Sara
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Marcus, Lars
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Architecture, Urban Design.
    Urban diversity and how to measure it: An operational definition of classes and scales2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Diversity as an essential factor for liveability, economic growth, and attractiveness in cities was stressed already half a century ago by Jane Jacobs (1961, 1969). Its importance has only grown and today, diversity is stated as fundamental for current creative societies and their need for knowledge spillovers, and referred to by economists as “Jacobean externalities”. More specifically, in urban morphology and design, we can find various trends that have tried to achieve such aims under the banner of for example mixed-use. The problem is, firstly, that the definitions are not strict enough to categorize what we mean with diversity. Secondly, there are not proper analytical tools to measure diversity so that we can compare various areas. For measurements there are various challenges ahead. For instance, cities may seem diverse on one scale but widely homogeneous on another. Consequently, application of analysis on various scales and precise categorizations are essential for the development of new knowledge on urban diversity.

    This paper addresses these needs, firstly, by a conceptual discussion on diversity in contradiction to specialization and homogeneity in cities. Secondly, by setting up a framework for the measurement of diversity, both as an economic phenomena and how it can be supported by urban form. The overall framework for this project is a thorough discussion and testing of a redefinition of Jacobs’ four criteria for spatial diversity in cities, introduced in the Death and Life of Great American Cities. Preliminary studies suggest strong correlation between all these criteria, in their developed and analytically formalized definitions for ground floor activities in the inner city of Stockholm.

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    Urban diversity and how to measure it
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