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  • 1.
    Xuan, Changji
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Wettability and Agglomeration Characteristics of Non-Metallic Inclusions2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, both the wettability and the agglomeration characteristics of non-metallic inclusions in liquid iron/steel were studied by using both experimental results and thermodynamic considerations. The mechanisms of the wettability of different types of inclusions were discussed. Also, the agglomeration behaviors of the inclusions were analyzed.

    Firstly, the wettability of different types of inclusions (including Al2O3, MgO, Ti2O3, TiO2 and TiN) in contact with the liquid iron/steel was studied. For the TiNcase, there is no reaction formation at the interface between TiN and pureiron/steel. In the caseo f pure Fe, the oxygen increase is the main factor for a contact angle decrease. As for the steel case, a sharp decrease of the contact angle is due to the effects of both an increased oxygen content in the liquid steel and a formation of a Ti(N,C,O) phase at the interface. For the Al2O3 and MgO cases, the formation of a FeAl2O4 and a MgO-FeO reaction layer at the interface, respectively, lead to a contact angle decrease. In the case of the Ti2O3/pure Fe case, the reaction at the interface cannot be identified. For the Ti2O3/steel case, the formation of an Al2TiO5 reaction layer is the main reason for a steep decrease of the contact angle. In the TiO2 case, the melting region appears at the temperature below the melting point of pure iron. This is due to the strong formation of a solid solution TiOx-FeO. The main source of the oxygen for the solid solution formationis due to a TiO2 substrate decomposition and a low partial pressure of oxygen in the chamber.

    Regarding to the non-metallic particle additions (TiO2 and TiN) into the molten steel, the steel composition should be controlled to have a small Al content (<0.005mass%) and a high Ti content (>0.035mass%), so as togeta high number of Ti-rich oxide inclusions with a small size. This conclusionis supported from the view point of the van der Waals force, liquid-capillary force and wettability.

    Regarding the Ti/Al complex deoxidation in the melt, the “mainly occupied clustered inclusions” with spherical shape is due to a TiOx-FeO liquid inclusion precipitation after an addition of Ti as a pre-deoxidizer. The much lower cluster number in the Ti/Al case than that in the Al case is mainly due to a coagulation of single TiOx-FeO liquid inclusions. Also, the cluster formation in a complex Ti/Al deoxidation is started after an Al addition rather than after a Ti addition.

    Regarding the Al2O3 cluster formation in deoxidation, the cavity bridge forceis larger than the van der Waals force. However, the difference between them is smaller than 7 times. In the reoxidation process, the influence of the cavity bridge force due to the wettability decreased, and became similar to that of the liquid-capillary force.

  • 2.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Karasev, Andrey
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Shibata, H.
    Jönsson, Pär
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Materials Processing.
    Retraction: Wetting behavior of single crystal TiO2 by liquid iron (ISIJ International (2016) 56:5 (765–769) DOI: 10.2355/isijinternational.ISIJINT-2015-722)2016In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 56, no 6Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The following article was withdrawn due to the request of the authors on May 11, 2016.

  • 3.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Karasev, Andrey V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Attraction Force Estimations of Al2O3Agglomerationsin the MeltManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Karasev, Andrey V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Evaluation of Agglomeration Mechanisms of Non-metallic Inclusions and Cluster Characteristics Produced by Ti/Al Complex Deoxidation in Fe-10 mass%Ni AlloyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Karasev, Andrey V.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Shibata, Hiroyuki
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Wetting Behaviorof Single Crystal TiO2by Liquid IronManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Mu, Wangzhong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Olano, Zuriñe Idoyaga
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Nakajima, Keiji
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Effect of the Ti, Al Contents on the Inclusion Characteristics in Steels with TiO2 and TiN Particle Additions2015In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, Vol. 86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of the Ti, Al contents on the metamorphic evolution of inclusions of Ti–Al complex oxides including TiN and MnS are investigated in common carbon steels with TiO2 and TiN particle additions. The study is carried out based on both SEM-EDS analyses and Thermo-Calc equilibrium calculations. Moreover, the particle size distributions are investigated by using the electrolytic extraction method. Based on the results of this study, the following is suggested: (i) the steel composition is controlled to contain small amount of the Al content (<0.005 mass%) and large amount of the Ti content (>0.035 mass%) in order to obtain a high number of fine particles containing a Ti-rich oxide phase when adding TiO2 and TiN particles; (ii) this consideration is reasonable from the view point of the agglomeration degree of different inclusion materials, which are estimated from the attractive force (van der Waals force and liquid-capillary force) and the contact angle.

  • 7.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Shibata, Hiroyuki
    Sukenaga, Sohei
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Nakajima, Keiji
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Wettability of Al2O3, MgO and Ti2O3 by Liquid Iron and Steel2015In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 55, no 9, p. 1882-1890Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wetting behavior of liquid iron and steel on Al2O3, MgO and Ti2O3 substrates was measured by using the sessile drop method. Measurements were carried out using a controlled oxygen partial pressure and using an argon protected atmosphere. For the Al2O3 and MgO substrates, reaction layers in form of FeAl2O4 and MgO-FeO (solid solution) were formed. These layers slightly decreased the contact angle and surface tension values after a full melting. For a Ti2O3 substrate in contact with pure Fe, no-reaction could be observed at the interface. Furthermore, the contact angle and surface tension values were almost stable after a full melting. For a Ti2O3 substrate in contact with steel, the contact angle and surface tension values decreased steeply after a full melting, due to the formation Al2TiO5 reaction layer formation at the interface.

  • 8.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Shibata, Hiroyuki
    Zhao, Zhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Jönsson, Pär Göran
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Nakajima, Keiji
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Applied Process Metallurgy.
    Wettability of TiN by Liquid Iron and Steel2015In: ISIJ International, ISSN 0915-1559, E-ISSN 1347-5460, Vol. 55, no 8, p. 1642-1651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The wettability of liquid iron and steel in contact with TiN substrates was studied. Initially, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was used to prepare the samples using different operational conditions. It was found that a relative density of 96% and surface roughness values smaller than 250 nm could be obtained by using the following settings: a 1 873 K temperature, a 89.2 MPa pressure and a 5 min sintering time. Thereafter, the wettability of the liquid iron and steel in contact with the TiN substrates was measured based on video recordings, at the moment when the metals started to melt. The results show that the contact angle value for a TiN/pure Fe system (130 to 87.9 degrees for 900 s) is larger than the value for a TiN/steel system (110 to 50 degrees for 981 s). Therefore, it is concluded that TiN has good resistance to the corrosion of the liquid iron and steel. In the liquid iron case, its wetting behaviour occurs mainly due to the oxygen increase in liquid iron after a full melting. However, in the liquid steel case the contact angle decreases sharply due to both the effects of an oxygen increase in liquid steel and a precipitation of Ti(N,C,O) at the interface.

  • 9.
    Xuan, Changji
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Zhao, Zhe
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Jönsson, Pär G.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering.
    Wettability and corrosion of spark plasma sintered (SPS) ZrN by liquid iron and steel2016In: Journal of the European Ceramic Society, ISSN 0955-2219, E-ISSN 1873-619X, Vol. 36, no 10, p. 2435-2442Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full dense ZrN substrates with a relative density of 96% were prepared by using the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method. Thereafter, the wettability and corrosion behavior of ZrN by liquid iron and steel were studied using a sessile drop technique. The nitrogen diffusion from the ZrN substrate into pure Fe/steel was identified. A strong wetting behavior of the liquid iron and steel in contact with the ZrN substrate was found. This is due to the nitrogen diffusion into the melt. The mechanism of the nitrogen diffusion is mainly due to the ZrN substrate oxidation rather than due to a ZrN dissolution.

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