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  • 1.
    Atapour, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Stainless steel in simulated milk and whey protein solutions - Influence of grade on corrosion and metal release2020In: Electrochimica Acta, ISSN 0013-4686, E-ISSN 1873-3859, Vol. 331, article id 135428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reactions at the biointerfaces between stainless steel and protein-rich dairy products, which contain whey proteins, are important to consider in terms of food safety and material grade selection. Changes in corrosion behavior, metal release, and surface composition of austenitic (AISI 316 L), ferritic (AISI 430), and lean duplex (LDX 2101) stainless steels in simulated milk (SMS) and whey protein solution were investigated. The amount of released metals and the corrosion susceptibility increased according to 2101 < 316 L < 430. All grades revealed low corrosion rates in the whey protein solution without any sign of active/metastable corrosion. Pitting corrosion was evident for 430 in SMS. The total amount of released metals (iron, chromium, and nickel) was significantly higher in whey protein solution compared with SMS. This suggests the metal release process to be mainly governed by complexation reactions. Nickel was preferentially released compared to its bulk composition fraction for both 316 L and 2101 in the highly complexing SMS. Reduced metal release rates with time correlated with the enrichment of chromium in the surface oxide. The extent of metal release was for all metals substantially lower than release limits of metals stipulated in health regulations related to the use of alloys and metals in food-related environments.

  • 2.
    Atapour, Masoud
    et al.
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Wei, Zheng
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Chaudhary, Himanshu
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Lendel, Christofer
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Applied Physical Chemistry.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Engineering Sciences in Chemistry, Biotechnology and Health (CBH), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Metal release from stainless steel 316L in whey protein - And simulated milk solutions under static and stirring conditions2019In: Food Control, ISSN 0956-7135, E-ISSN 1873-7129, Vol. 101, p. 163-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stainless steel is an important transport and processing contact material for bovine milk and dairy products. Release (migration) of metals, ions, complexes or wear debris/particles, and metal-induced protein aggregation in such environments are hence important to consider both from a corrosion and food safety perspective. This study aims on investigating the release of iron (Fe), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) from AISI 316L stainless steel in contact with whey protein solutions relevant for protein drinks, and on how the whey proteins are influenced by stirring with a magnetic stir bar and metal release. Mechanistic insight is gained by parallel investigations of metal release from two reference non-protein containing solutions, a metal-complexing (citrate-containing) simulated milk solution (SMS) and a low complexing phosphate buffered saline solution (PBS). All immersion exposures were conducted at pH 6.8 for 0.5, 4, 24 and 48 hat room temperature at static and stirring conditions. All solutions and samples were investigated using different chemical, spectroscopic, microscopic, and electrochemical methods. Significantly higher amounts of Fe, Cr, and Ni were released into the whey protein solution (80 g/L) as compared to SMS and PBS. Strong enrichment of Cr in the surface oxide and reduction of the surface oxide thickness were associated with a higher amount of Ni release in the metal-complexing solutions (SMS and whey protein) compared with PBS. Stirring conditions resulted in higher amounts of metal release, enrichment of Cr in the surface oxide, and clear signs of wear of the 316L surface in all solutions compared to static conditions. The wear mechanism in the whey protein solution was different as compared to corresponding processes in SMS and PBS, involving an etching-like process and larger-sized wear debris. Electrochemical measurements at static conditions confirmed observed differences between the solutions, with the lowest corrosion resistance observed for coupons exposed in the whey protein solution, followed by SMS and PBS. Released metals in solution from the 316L coupons in contact with the whey protein solution resulted in enhanced rates of protein aggregation and precipitation of protein aggregates from solution. Further studies should be made to investigate other relevant test conditions and assess toxicological risks.

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