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Actuator Security Indices Based on Perfect Undetectability: Computation, Robustness, and Sensor Placement
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).ORCID iD: 0000-0002-2045-5665
Uppsala Univ, Dept Engn Sci, Signals & Syst, S-75236 Uppsala, Sweden..
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).ORCID iD: 0000-0001-9940-5929
KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Intelligent systems, Decision and Control Systems (Automatic Control).ORCID iD: 0000-0003-1835-2963
2020 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, ISSN 0018-9286, E-ISSN 1558-2523, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 3816-3831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We propose an actuator security index that can be used to localize and protect vulnerable actuators in a networked control system. Particularly, the security index of an actuator equals to the minimum number of sensors and actuators that need to be compromised, such that a perfectly undetectable attack against that actuator can be conducted. We derive a method for computing the index in small-scale systems and show that the index can potentially be increased by placing additional sensors. The difficulties that appear once the system is of a large-scale are then outlined: The index is NP-hard to compute, sensitive with respect to system variations, and based on the assumption that the attacker knows the entire system model. To overcome these difficulties, a robust security index is introduced. The robust index can characterize actuators vulnerable in any system realization, can be calculated in polynomial time, and can be related to limited model knowledge attackers. Additionally, we analyze two sensor placement problems with the objective to increase the robust indices. We show that the problems have submodular structures, so their suboptimal solutions with performance guarantees can be computed in polynomial time. Finally, we illustrate the theoretical developments through examples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2020. Vol. 65, no 9, p. 3816-3831
Keywords [en]
Indexes, Actuators, Security, Particle separators, Computational modeling, Networked control systems, Control systems analysis, cyber-physical systems, large-scale systems, linear systems, networks
National Category
Control Engineering
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-281480DOI: 10.1109/TAC.2020.2981392ISI: 000565140400008Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85090925750OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-281480DiVA, id: diva2:1477506
Note

QC 20201019

Available from: 2020-10-19 Created: 2020-10-19 Last updated: 2022-06-25Bibliographically approved

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Milosevic, JezdimirJohansson, Karl H.Sandberg, Henrik

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